Thursday 30 May 2013

Period Woodworking Tools.


Brace and bit.


The auger and gimlet I made from some old brace bits.

Paring Ladder.

Pump Drill.

Making Rakes.

The stail is the long straight handle used on hoes and rakes. I make mine with a hatchet and drawing knife, but as you can see there is a stail engine.

This tine former can also be used for making wooden pegs for other construction work.

cornish woodland workshop: Laying the shingles

cornish woodland workshop: Laying the shingles: Not done a great deal of work on the barn roof over this long, wet and cold winter; certainly not as much as we had planned, but today was...

Saturday 25 May 2013

Edge of the Woods: Defining Heriot's Natives

Edge of the Woods: Defining Heriot's Natives: The internet and our preferred methods of communication these days can be cumbersome if not downright useless sometimes. We shoot image...

Traditional American Indian Arts: Indian Women's Wrap Skirt

Traditional American Indian Arts: Indian Women's Wrap Skirt:  This past Winter I was approached by a esteemed collector of American Indian Art. He wanted me to create a Women's Wrap s...


MY NEIGHBOR WELLINGTON: PORTRAIT OF PORTUGUESE WOMEN BY FOREIGN TRAVELERS: In one of my recent trips to the library, I found this amazing book, amongst others, and I decided to share with you. Unfortunately I cann...

Stranger Things Have Happened: Through the 18th-Century Midwest with Monsieur Sabrevois, Part Three

Stranger Things Have Happened: Through the 18th-Century Midwest with Monsieur Sabrevois, Part Three

Stranger Things Have Happened: Through the 18th-Century Midwest with Commandant Sabrevois (Part Two)

Stranger Things Have Happened: Through the 18th-Century Midwest with Commandant Sabrevois (Part Two)

Stranger Things Have Happened: Through the 18th-Century Midwest with Jacques-Charles Sabrevois

Stranger Things Have Happened: Through the 18th-Century Midwest with Jacques-Charles Sabrevois

American Indian's History: Ancient and Modern Funeral Practices of the Sac an...

American Indian's History: Ancient and Modern Funeral Practices of the Sac an...: Ancient and Modern Funeral Practices of the Sac and Fox Native Americans It will be seen from the following account, furnished by M...

Friday 24 May 2013

To Shave or Not To Shave. Beards in the 18th century.

There is a lot of talk on other forums and a lot of people have different opinions about whether people had beards in the 18th century or not. To me it has always seemed common sense that away from city fashions, a man did exactly what he wanted to do. So I do not get into arguments over this issue, and to the bitchy guy who said I do not portray a true woodsman because I have a beard, I say, absolutely nothing. Instead I will post my thoughts and findings here, and as I have already stated above, I think it always has been a matter of personal preference.

Quote: Twenty pounds reward
Run away from... Alexandria, Fairfax County Virginia, a convict servant man, named John Murphy, born in Ireland, about 28 Years of Age, by trade a joiner, a low set fellow, about 5 feet 4 inches high, struts in his walk, has a pale complexion, large black beard and eyebrows, wide mouth, and pleasant countenance, sings extraordinarily well, having followed it in playhouses in London, talks proper English, and that in a polite manner... It is imagined he has forged a pass and likely will deny his name, trade and place of nativity.
NB All Masters of Vessels are forbid to take him off at their Peril. (August 1760)

17th century oil painting  a bearded man with a young girl  by Jacob Toorenvliet.

Blackbeard (c. 1736 engraving used to illustrate Johnson's General History)

French school 18th century head_of_a_bearded_man.

Gaetano Gandolfi ,Study_of_a_Bearded_Man  1770

Johann Andreas Benjamin Nothnagel 18thc.

John Worley, 1624-1721 Painted 1705.

The Old Beggar , French School, 18th century Musee Bargoin.

Thomas Gent, printer and author of the book depicted in his right hand, The Antient and Modern History of the Loyal Town of Rippon (published in 1733).

Voyage To Georgia. 1736-7. February. Final Page.

On the 23rd, Colonel Bull, one of his Majesty’s Council in Carolina, arrived here in his own Perriagua, with Letters from the Lieutenant-Governor, Council and Assembly of that Province for Mr. Oglethorpe.  I offered him the Ship’s great Cabbin, and all Provisions and Necessaries, but he refused it, having himself a Cabbin fitted up with all Conveniences aboard his own Perriagua; howsoever he did us the Favour to dine on board. 
            Nothing remarkable happened on board till Mr. Oglethorpe returned from the Southward, which was on the 25th in the Evening.  I had from one who went along with him, the following Account.
            The Scout-boat went along through Channels, between the Islands and the Main; these Channels are in some Places above a Mile; these Channels are in some Places above a Mile, and in others not above 200 Yards wide.  In many Places, the Woods of Pines, Evergreen-Oaks, and Cedar-Trees grow close to the Water-Side, which with the clear sea-green Colour and Stillness of the Channels, sheltered by the Woods, is very delightful to the Eye.  In other Places, on the Banks, are wide Marshes, so hard that Cattle feed upon them, though at some of the very highest Spring-tides they are just covered with Water.  We passed between the Island of Wilmington and the Main; upon the latter, we landed at one Mr. Lacy’s where 5 Gentlemen of 500 Acre Lotts have built their Houses together, that they might be the more easily fortified, which they are with Palisades well flanked with several Pieces of Cannon.  They with Masters and Servants make the Garrison, and in all Times of Apprehension do regular Duty; one of the Masters, with Proportion of Servants, mounting Guard each Night.  They have cleared above 100 Acres of Land round the Fort.  They have Milk, Cattle, Hogs, Garden-stuff, and Poultry in such Plenty, that they sent at different Times several Bushels of Eggs down toFrederica.  

Saturday 18 May 2013

Early American Gardens: Lavender in Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Tr...

Early American Gardens: Lavender in Virginian John Randolph's 1727-1784 Tr...: A Treatise on Gardening Written by a native of this State (Virginia) Author was John Randolph (1727-1784) Written in Williamsburg, Vir...


COLONIAL AMERICAN DIGRESSIONS: COLONIAL OCCUPATION: BAKER: Baker's tools COLONIAL OCCUPATION:   BAKER Dear Reader,    The first colonial American bakery was started in Plymouth Mas...

Longhunter: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fm3H4hWJhwA&feature...

Longhunter: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fm3H4hWJhwA&feature...: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fm3H4hWJhwA&feature=youtube_gdata

Primitive Skills DVDs.

im finally starting to get the hang of this now. it took a little while but its worth it. I feel a lot better knowing I don't need char cloth or mushroom. the important factors I found were obviously having the right wood in the first place. the next was that its charred properly. then a sharp flint. you don't even need lots of sparks, just a few well directed ones. its all here in the videos, I listened to what you said keith and it works seriously well. thanks mate that's awesome
BUY NOW button to the left of this post.


COLONIAL AMERICAN DIGRESSIONS: SOMETIMES YOU FARMED: A Colonial Teenager at Harvest (He is overdressed for the portrait) It is November 173X.   You are fourteen years old.   In...

Thursday 16 May 2013

Longhunter: Martins Station

Longhunter: Martins Station: just got back from the the Raid At martins staiton should be posting pics here soon

Unknown Image. Anyone know the artist?

A Voyage To Georgia. Part 12.

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.

Each Freeholder has a Lott in Town 60 Foot by 90 Foot, besides which he has a Lott beyond the Common, of 5 Acres for a Garden.  Every ten Houses make a Tything, and to every Tything there is a Mile Square, which is divided into

1735-6. February. Savannah.
12 Lotts, besides Roads: Each Free-holder of the Tything has a Lott or Farm of 45 Acres there, and two Lotts are reserved by the Trustees in order to defray the Charge of the Publick.  The Town is laid out for two hundred and forty Freeholds; the Quantity of Lands necessary for that Number is 24 Square Miles; every 40 Houses in Town make a Ward, to which 4 Square Miles in the Country belong; each Ward has a Constable, and under him 4 Tything Men.  Where the Town-Lands end, the Villages begin; four Villages make a Ward without, which depends upon one of the Wards within the Town.  The Use of this is, in case a War should happen, that the Villages without may have Places in the Town, to bring their Cattle and Families into for Refuge, and to that Purpose there is a Square left in every Ward; big enough for the Out-wards to encamp in.  There is Ground also kept round about the Town ungranted, in order for the Fortifications, whenever Occasion shall require.  Beyond the Villages, commence Lotts of 500 Acres; these are granted upon Terms of keeping 10 Servants, Etc.  Several Gentlemen who have settled on such Grants have succeeded very well, and have been of great Service to the Colony.  Above the Town is a Parcel of Land called Indian Lands; these are those reserved by King Toma Chi Chi for his People.  There is near the Town, to the East, a Garden belonging to the Trustees, consisting of 10 Acres; the Situation is delightful, one half of it is upon the Top of a Hill, the Foot of which the River Savannah washes, and from it you see the Woody Islands in the Sea.  The Remainder of the Garden is the Side and some plain low Ground at the Foot of the Hill, where several fine Springs break out.  In the Garden is variety of Soils; the

1735-6. February. Savannah.
Top is sandy and dry, the Sides of the Hill are Clay, and the Bottom is a black rich Garden-Mould well watered.  On the North-part of the Garden is left standing a Grove of Part of the old Wood, as it was before the arrival of the Colony there.  The Trees in the Grove are mostly Bay, Sassafras, Evergreen Oak, Pellitory, Hickary, American Ash, and the Laurel Tulip.  This last is looked upon as one of the most beautiful Trees in the World; it grows straight-bodied to 40 or 50 Foot high; the Bark smooth and whitish, the Top spreads regular like an Orange-tree in English Gardens, only larger; the Leaf is like that of a common Laurel, but bigger, and the under-side of a greenish Brown:  It blooms about the Month of June; the Flowers are white, fragrant like the Orange, and perfume all the Air around it; the Flower is round, 8 or 10 Inches diameter, thick like the Orange-flower, and a little yellow near the Heart:  As the Flowers drop, the Fruit, which is a Cone with red Berries, succeeds them.  There are also some Bay-trees that have Flowers like the Laurel, only less.
            The Garden is laid out with Cross-walks planted with Orange-trees, but the last Winter, a good deal of Snow having fallen, had killed those upon the Top of the Hill down to their Roots, but they being cut down sprouted again, as I saw when I returned to Savannah.  In the Squares between the Walks, were vast Quantities of Mulberry-trees, this being a Nursery for all the Province, and every planter that desires it, has young Trees given him gratis from this Nursery.  These white Mulberry-trees were planted in order to raise Silk, for which Purpose several Italians were brought, at the Trustee’s Expense, from Piedmont by Mr. Amatis; they have fed Worms, and wound Silk to as great Perfection as any that ever came out of Italy: But the Italians falling out, one of them stole away the Machines for winding, broke the Coppers, and spoiled all the Eggs, which he could not steal, and fled to South-Carolina.  The others, who continued faithful, had saved but a few Eggs when Mr. Oglethorpe arrived, therefore he forbade any Silk should be wound, but that all the Worms should be suffered to eat through their Balls, in order to have more Eggs against next Year.  The Italian Women are obliged to takeEnglish Girls Apprentices, whom they teach to wind and feed; and the Men have taught our English Gardeners to tend the Mulberry-trees, and our Joyners have learned how to make the Machines for winding.  As the Mulberry-trees increase, there will be a great Quantity of Silk made here.
            Besides the Mulberry-trees; there are in some of the Quarters in the coldest part of the Garden, all kinds of Fruit-trees usual in England, such as Apples, Pears, etc.  In another Quarter are Olives, Figs, Vines, Pomegranates and such Fruits as are natural to the warmest Parts of Europe.  At the bottom of the Hill, well sheltered from the North-wind, and in the warmest part of the Garden, there was a Collection of West-India Plants and Trees, some Coffee, some Cocoa-nuts, Cotton, Palma-christi, and several West-Indian physical Plants, some sent up by Mr Eveleigh a publick-spirited Merchant at Charles-Town, and some by Dr. Houstoun, from the Spanish West-Indies, where he was sent at the Expence of a Collection raised by that curious Physician SirHans Sloan, for to collect and send them to Georgia, where the Climate was capable of making a Garden which might contain all kinds of Plants; to which Design his Grace the Duke ofRichmond, the Earl of Derby, the Lord Peters and the Apothecary’s Company contributed very generously; as did Sir Hans himself.  The Quarrels amongst the Italians proved fatal to most of these Plants, and they were labouring to repair that Loss when I was there, Mr. Miller being employ’d in the room of Dr. Houstoun, who died in Jamaica.  We heard he had wrote an Account of his having obtain’d the Plant from whence the trueBalsamum Capivi is drawn; and that the was in hopes of getting that from whence the Jesuits Barks is taken, he designing for that Purpose to send to the Spanish West Indies.
            There is a Plant of Bamboo Cane brought from the East Indies, and sent over by Mr. Towers, which thrives well.  There was also some Tea-seeds, which came from the same Place; but the latter, though great Care was taken, did not grow.

East of India – Forgotten trade with Australia. A Link.


Saturday 11 May 2013

Pauline's Pirates & Privateers: Seafaring Sunday: Royal Navy Uniform

Pauline's Pirates & Privateers: Seafaring Sunday: Royal Navy Uniform: April 13, 1748: The first official uniform was prescribed for officers in the Royal Navy of Britain. The standard included a white waistco...

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MY NEIGHBOR WELLINGTON: THE PENINSULA WAR IN PORTUGAL SEEN BY THE BRITS: Taken from the book “A Guerra Peninsular em Portugal – English Reports ”, by Maria Leonor Machado de Sousa, Centro de Estudos Anglo-Portug...

Thursday 9 May 2013

Working on a Wigwam for a Winter Shelter.

I thought it was about time I did some more experimenting with a different type of shelter, so I decided to make a Wigwam. These images show just the framework, later I will have to pull it apart & move it to a winter camp site in the forest. Then I will cover the framework and take more photos.

Pirates Movie Coming: Black Sails.

American Indian's History: Native American Hemp Rugs and Carpets

American Indian's History: Native American Hemp Rugs and Carpets: Native American Hemp Rugs and Carpets Formerly, the Indians made very handsome carpets. They have a wild hemp that grows about six...

A Voyage to Georgia; Part 11.

Begun the 15th of October, 1735.
Those who have cleared their 5 Acre Lotts, have made a very great Profit out of them by Greens, Roots and Corn.  Several have improv’d the Cattle they had at first, and have now 5 or 6 tame Cows; others, who to save the Trouble of Feeding

1735-6. February. Savannah.
them, let them go into the Woods, can rarely find them, and when they are brought up, one of them will not give half the Quantity of Milk, which another Cow fed near Home will give.  Their Houses are built at a pretty large Distance from one another, for fear of Fire; the Streets are very wide, and there are great Squares left at proper Distances, for Markets and other Conveniences.  Near the River-side there is a Guard-house inclosed with Palisades a Foot think, where there are 19 or 20 Cannons mounted, and a continual Guard kept by the Free-holders.  This Town is governed by 3 Bailiffs, and has a Recorder, Register, and a Town Court, which is holden every six Weeks, where all Matters Civil and Criminal are decided by grand and petty Juries, as in England; but there are no Lawyers allowed to plead for Hire, nor no Attornies to take Money, but (as in old times in England) every Man pleads his own Cause.  In case it should be an Orphan, or one that cannot speak for themselves, there are Persons of the best Substance in the Town, appointed by the Trustees to take care of the Orphans, and to defend the Helpless, and that without Fee or Reward, it being a Service that each that is capable must perform in his Turn.  They have some Laws and Customs peculiar to Georgia; one is, that all Brandies and distilled Liquors are prohibited under severe Penalties; another is, that no Slavery is allowed, nor Negroes; a Third, that all Persons who go among the Indians must give Security for their good Behavior; because theIndians, if any Injury is done to them, and they cannot kill the Man who does it, expect Satisfaction from the Government, which if not procured, they break out into War, by killing the first white Man they conveniently can.  No Victualler or Alehouse-keeper can give any Credit so consequently

1735-6. February, Savannah.
cannot recover any Debt.  The Free-holds are all entailed, which has been very fortunate for the Place.  If People could have sold, the greatest part, before they knew the Value of their Lotts, would have parted with them for a trifling Condition, and there were not wanting rich Men who employed Agents to Monopolize the whole Town: And if they had got Numbers of Lotts into their own Hands, the other Free-holders would have had no Benefit by letting their Houses, and hardly of Trade, since the Rich, by means of a large Capital, would underlet and undersell, and the Town must have been almost without Inhabitants, as Port Royal in Carolina is, by the best Lotts being got into a few Hands.
            The mentioning the Laws and Customs leads me to take notice that Georgia is founded upon Maxims different from those on which other Colonies have been begun.  The Intention of that Colony was an Asylum to receive the Distressed.  This was the charitable Design, and the governmental View besides that, was, with Numbers of free white People, well settled, to strengthen the southern Part of the English Settlements on the Continent of America, of which this is the Frontier.  It is necessary therefore not to permit Slaves in such a Country, for Slaves starve the poor Labourer.  For if the Gentleman can have his Work done by a Slave who is a Carpenter or a Bricklayer, the Carpenter or Bricklayers of that Country must starve for want of Employment, and so of other Trades.
            In order to maintain many People, it was proper that the Land should be divided into small Portions, and to prevent the uniting them by Marriage
1735-6. February. Savannah.
or Purchase.  For every Time that two Lotts are united, the Town Loses a Family, and the Inconveniency of this shews itself at Savannah, notwithstanding the Care of the Trustees to prevent it.  They suffered the Moiety of the Lotts to descend to the Widows during their Lives: Those who remarried to Men who had Lotts of their own, by uniting two Lotts made one be neglected; for the strength of Hands who could take care of one, was not sufficient to look to and improve two.  These uncleared Lotts are a Nusance to their Neighbours.  The Trees which grow upon them shade the Lotts, the Beasts take shelter in them, and for want of clearing the Brooks which pass thro’ them, the Lands above are often prejudiced by Floods.  To prevent all these Inconveniences, the first Regulation of the Trustees was a strict Agrarian Law, by which all the Lands near Towns should be divided, 50 Acres to each Freeholder.  The Quantity of Land by Experience seems rather too much, since it is impossible that one poor Family can tend so much Land.  If this Alottment is too much, how much more inconvenient would the uniting of two be?  To prevent it, the Trustees grant the Lands in Tail Male, that on the expiring of a Male-Line they may regrant it to such Man, having no other Lott, as shall be married to the next Female Heir of the Deceased, as is of good Character.  This manner of Dividing, prevents also the Sale of Lands, and the Rich thereby monopolizing the Country.

American Indian's History: Native American Wattle Work Houses

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