Sunday 30 June 2013

Provisions List 1630

Provisions List 1630
A Catalog of such needefull things as every Planter doth or ought to provide to go
to New-England
Victuals for a whole yeere for a man...
8 Bushels of meale
2 Bushels of Otemeale.
1 Gallon of Aquavitae
1 Firkin of Butter
2 Bushels of pease.
1 Gallon of Oyle.
2 Gallons of Vinegar.
1 Monmouth Cap.
1 Wast-coat.
1 Suit of Frize.
2 Paire of Sheets.
3 Falling Bands.
1 Suit of Canvas.
3 Paire of Stockings.
1 Paire of Blankets.
3 Shirts.
1 Suit of Cloth.
4 Paire of Shooes.
1 Course Rug.
7 Ells of Canvase to make a bed and boulster.
1 Armor compleat.
1 Sword.
1 Bandilier.
60 Pound of Lead.
1 Long peece.
1 Belt.
20 Pound of Powder.
1 Pistoll and Goose shot.Tooles.
1 Broad Howe.
1 Shovell.
1 Felling Axe.
1 Grindstone.
1 Narrow Howe.
1 Spade.
1 Gimblet.
1 Pickaxe.
1 Steele Handsawe.
2 Augers.
1 Hatchet.
Nayles of all sorts
1 Whipsawe.
4 Chissels.
2 Frowes.
1 Hammer.
1 Broad Axe.
1 Hand-Bill.
Household Implements.
1 Iron Pot.
1 Gridiron.
1 Kettel.
2 Skellets.
Wooden Platters.
1 Frying pan
1 Spit.
Also there are divers other things necessary to bee taken over to this Plantation,
as Bookes, Nets, Hookes and Lines, Cheese, Bacon, Kine, Goats, &c.
From: New England’s Plantation, or, A short and True Description of the Commodities and

Discommodities of that Country. By Reverend Francis Higginson, London, 1630.

Provision Suggestions 1639

Provision Suggestions 1639
What Provision is made for a Journey at Sea and what to carry with us for our use 
at Land by William Wood
from New-England's Prospect, being a true, lively and experimental Description of that part of 
America commonly called New-England, London 1639
Many peradventure at the looking over of these relations, may have inclinations or resolutions for the 
voyage; to whom I wish all prosperity in their undertakings; although I will use no forcive arguments to 
persuade any, but leave them to the relation; yet by way of advice, I would commend to them a few 
lines from the pen of experience. And because the way to New-England is over the sea, it will not be 
amiss to give you directions what is necessary to be carried. Many I suppose, know as well, or better 
than myself; yet all do not; to those my directions tend. Although every man have ship-provisions 
allowed him for his five pounds a man, which is salt beef, pork, salt fish, butter, cheese, pease 
pottage, water grewel, and such kind of victuals, with good biskets, and six shilling beer; yet it will be 
necessary to carry some comfortable refreshing of fresh victuals. As first, for such as have ability, 
some conserves, and good claret wine to burn [burnt wine is brandy] at sea; or you may have it by 
some of your vintners or wine-coopers burned here, and put up into vessels, which will keep much 
better than other burnt wine; it is a very comfortable thing for the stomach, or such as are sea-sick; 
sallad-oil likewise, prunes are good to be stewed, sugar for many things; white biskets, eggs, and 
bacon, rice, poultry, and some weather sheep to kill aboard the ship, and fine flour baked meats will 
keep about a week or nine days at sea. Juice of lemons, well put up, is good either to prevent or cure 
the scurvy. Here it must not be forgotten to carry small skillets, or pipkins, and small frying-pans, to 
dress their victuals in at sea. For bedding, so it be easy, and cleanly, and warm, it is no matter how 
old or coarse it be for the use of the sea; and so likewise for apparel, the oldest cloaths be the fittest, 
with a long coarse coat, to keep better things from the pitched ropes and planks. Whosoever shall put 
to sea in a stout and well-conditioned ship, having an honest master, and loving seaman, shall not 
need to fear but he shall find as good content at sea as a land...
Now for the encouragement of his men, he [the head of a family with servants] must not do as many 
have done (more through ignorance than desire) carry many mouths and no meat; but rather much 
meat for a few mouths. Want of due maintenance produceth nothing but a grumbling spirit with a 
sluggish idleness; when as those servants be well provided for, go through their employments with 
speed and chearfulness. For meal, it will be requisite to carry a hogshead and an half for every one 
that is a labourer, to keep him till he may receive the fruit of his own labours, which will be a year and 
a half after his arrival, if he land in May or June. He must likewise carry malt, beef, butter, cheese, 
some pease, good wines, vinegar, strong-waters, &c. Whosoever transports more of these than he 
himself useth, the overplus being sold, will yield as much profit as any other staple commodity. Every 
man likewise must carry over good store of apparel; for if he come to buy there, he will find it dearer 
than in England. Woollen cloth is a very good commodity, and linen better; as holland, lockram, 
flaxen, hempen, callico stuffs, linsey woolsies, and blue callico, green sayes for housewife's aprons, 
hats, boots, shoes, good Irish stockings, which if they be good, are much more serviceable than knit 
ones; all kind of grocery wares, such as sugar, prunes, raisins, currants, honey, nutmegs, cloves, &c soap, candles, and lamps, &c. All manner of household stuff is very good trade there, as pewter and 
brass, for the use of that country; warming-pans and stewing pans be of necessary use, and good 
traffick there. All manner of iron wares, as all manner of nails for houses, and all manner of spikes for 
building of boats, ships, and fishing stages; all manner of tools for workmen, hoes for planters, broad 
and narrow for setting and weeding; with axes, both broad and pitching axes. All manner of augers, 
piercing bits, whip-saws, two handed saws, froes, both for the riving of pailes, and laths, rings for 
beetle heads, and iron wedges; though all these be made in the country (there being divers 
blacksmiths) yet being a heavy commodity, and taking but a little storage, it is cheaper to carry such 
commodities out of England. Glass ought not to be forgotten of any that desire to benefit themselves, 
or the country; if it be well leaded, and carefully packed up, I know no commodity better for portage or 
sale. Here likewise must not be forgotten all utensils for the sea, as barbels, splitting knives, leads, 
and cod-hooks, and lines, mackrel hooks and lines, shark-hooks, seines, or bass-nets, large and 
strong, herring nets, &c. Such as would eat fowl, must not forget their six foot guns, their good 
powder, and shot of all sorts; a great round shot called Barnstable shot, is the best; being made of a 
blacker lead than ordinary shot. Furthermore, good pooldavies [a heavy canvas] to make sails for 
boots, roads, anchors for boats and pinnaces, are good; sea-coal, iron, lead, and mill-stones, flints, 
ordnances, and whatsoever a man conceive is good for the country, that will lie as ballast, he cannot 
be a loser by it. And lest I should forget a thing of so great importance, no man must neglect to 
provide himself, or those belonging to him, his ammunition, for the defence of himself and the 
country. For there is no man there that bears a head, but that bears military arms; even boys of 
fourteen years of age are practiced with men in military discipline, every three weeks. Whosoever 
shall carry over drums and English colours, pattesons [spear that is carried in front of troops], 
halberds, pikes, muskets, bandeleroes, with swords, shall not need to fear good gain for them; such 
things being wanting in the country.

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Friday 28 June 2013

Thursday 27 June 2013

Sprague House.

I think I am correct in saying that the Sprague house was of Medieval period design, but built in the 18th century. Very interesting.

It's About Time: Hunting, fowling, & shooting in Early American com...

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If you're in the UK


Monday 24 June 2013

Dave's ACT: The Flogging Tree

Dave's ACT: The Flogging Tree: James Wright - Lanyon Just a mention of a memory. That of a tree used for flogging convicts when Canberra was known as the Limestone Pl...

Sunday 23 June 2013

MY NEIGHBOR WELLINGTON: Marianne Baillie - Costumes in Portugal

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Yeoman's Leather: Improved photographs

This blog belongs to one of our group members.

Yeoman's Leather: Improved photographs: Hi all, I recently got a light tent which will allow me to take some better pictures of my projects, here are a couple for you to enjoy. ...

Wednesday 19 June 2013

18th-century American Women: 1754 A Picnic in Annapolis, Maryland

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Tuesday 18 June 2013

18th century Winter Solstice Masquerade Party.

New England Colonial Living History Group 1680-1760.

Our 18th Century Winter Solstice Masquerade Party will now be held on the 6th of July.  This is an annual social & is traditionally held outside in the gardens of Linstock House in Wychwood Forest not far from Guyra & Armidale NSW.  Dress warm for outside, but if it gets too cold we will be moving inside.

This event is hosted by our family for club members & friends only. Membership is FREE. Food & drinks will be provided, but please feel free to bring your own if you wish. This event will start about 5 pm.

Dress to be 18th century or earlier, or the best you can manage. A blanket can hide modern clothing if you are really stuck. 

Sunday 16 June 2013

The Algonquins. Showing Woodland Indian Interpreters.

Hammock Use In The 18th Century.

I received a request for information on the use of hammocks on land in the 18th century. Whilst I have as yet not been able to find any primary documentation on the use of hammocks for camping, I have found some images.
When you want to use a particular item in 18th century living history, you must first establish its existence and availability. IF you find that it is possible that your persona could have come in contact with such an item, then you may have a precedent for using that item. For instance, in the case of the hammock, were you once a seaman? Did you travel on a ship & use a hammock? Where else might you have seen a hammock in use?

Carrying a covered hammock, Bahia Brazil 1712-1714

Indias 1535 ad.

Slaves carrying a hammock. Brazil 1630s

Jan Van Der Straet's "America" 1600 ad.

Pirate Jean Lafitte sitting in a hammock.

Edinburgh Castle, 18th century (a living history reproduction of hammocks used in the castle).

Wild Foods. A Link.

Fistulina hepatica

Friday 14 June 2013

Making Cordage From Plant Fibers. A Video.

Brain Tanning Links.



How To Learn Primitive Skills.

I started learning primitive skills way back when I was a youngster. Of late several people have asked me where can they start to learn primitive skills. Here is an index list for my primitive skills DVDs, and the address to order from. There is also a "Buy Now" button to the left of this post.


Thursday 13 June 2013

Skills List For Woodsrunner's in our Group.

The Station Camp By David Wright.

Woodsrunner’s Skills.
This is a list of basic skills in which I personally would expect an 18th century woodsman or woods-woman to have some experience with.
·         Flint & steel fire lighting
·         Wet weather fire lighting
·         Fire-bow fire lighting
·         Flintlock fire lighting
·         Flintlock use, service & repair
·         Field dressing & butchering game
·         Blade sharpening
·         Tomahawk throwing
·         Making rawhide
·         Brain tanning
·         Primitive shelter construction
·         How to stay warm in winter with only one blanket
·         Cordage manufacture
·         Moccasin construction and repair
·         Sewing
·         Axe and tomahawk helve making
·         Fishing
·         Hunting
·         Evasion
·         Tracking
·         Reading sign
·         Woods lore
·         Navigation
·         Primitive trap construction & trapping
·         Open fire cooking
·         Fireplace construction
·         Clothing manufacture
·         Drying meat & other foods
·         Knowledge of plant tinders & preparation
·         Knowledge of native foods & preparation
·         Knowledge of native plants in the area and their uses for other than tinder and food.
·         Scouting/Ranging.
·         Basic first aid.
·         Finding and treating water.
·         General leather work.

Equipment Requirements For Our Group's Trained Band.

Victuals Well Dressed By Pamela Patrick White.

Rules, regulations, & clothing & equipment requirements. 19-6-08/update 7-5-09

Rules and regulations guide.

(1)   Each train to have at least 2 archers (each archer to carry at least 1lb of gunpowder, & 1lb of lead on extended ranging expeditions).
(2)   When ranging, each column to have one archer accompanying the lead scout.
(3)   Each column to use: lead scout with archer, a rear guard, & at least one scout on each flank.
(4)   Each member to maintain a space before of at least 3 paces.
(5)   Lead scout to lead by at least 60 paces (Dependant on environment).
(6)   Rear guard to trail at 20 paces.
(7)   Flank scouts to keep column in sight at all times if possible.
(8)   Guards to be posted at all stops.
(9)   Packs are not to be removed at stops except for toilet.
(10)                       No person shall leave the column alone and must always remain in sight of the column.
Equipment for extended ranger duties in wilderness areas.

(1)   Cartridge box containing a minimum of 8 cartridges. (Fusils & muskets only).
(2)   Shot pouch & required contents.
(3)   Powder horn.
(4)   Functional firelock with hammer stall & lock cover.
(5)   Gunpowder wallet.
(6)   At least 4 lbs of gunpowder.
(7)   At least 4 lbs of lead in ball, buckshot & birdshot.
(8)   At least 12 flints.
(9)   A tomahawk/axe.
(10)                       A good hunting/butcher knife.
(11)                       A clasp knife.
(12)                       A knapsack, snapsack or rucksack.
(13)                       A haversack or market wallet.
(14)                       A good wool blanket.
(15)                       An oilcloth of suitable size to shelter one person.
(16)                       A water bottle, canteen or costrel to hold at least 1 quart (You may need to carry more than one, depending on the area you are travelling in).
(17)                       Sufficient tow or wads.
(18)                       Patch material ditto.
(19)                       Fishing kit with at least 6 hooks & 2 lines.
(20)                       Tinderbox, flint, steel & prepared tinder.
(21)                       Trade kettle or other.
(22)                       Leather inner-soles & repair leather for moccasins.
(23)                       Leather thong or cordage ties.
(24)                       Food bags.
(25)                       Sewing kit.
(26)                       Awl

(27)                       Soap & hair comb.
(28)                       Medical supplies.
Optional Equipment.
(1)   Short hunting sword.
(2)   Half-axe or felling axe
(3)   Auger

Clothing Requirements.

(1)   Felt hat.
(2)   Shirt ( plus spare wool shirt in bedroll).
(3)   Weskit (plus wool weskit ditto)
(4)   Monmouth cap ditto.
(5)   Wool mittens.
(6)   Half-blanket or capote.
(7)   Breeches or breechclout.
(8)   Neckcloth.
(9)   Stockings or socks (wool recommended for winter).
(10)                       Leather leggings with garters.
(11)                       Moccasins with extra sewn on sole plus a spare pair.
(12)                       Frock or other.

Trail Foods.
Each person to carry as much dried foods as possible. Recommended foods are:
·         Oats
·         Beans
·         Pease
·         Corn
·         Rice
·         Cornmeal
·         Flour
·         Meat (dried)
·         Sausage
·         Fruit
·         Hardtack
·         Bread
·         Biscuit
·         Hard cheese
·         Boiled beef


NOTE: Unless otherwise requested, we will carry 6 pounds of dried food, which should last approx 6 days (you may carry more if you wish, but remember; there must be some compromise between minimum weight & maximum self-reliance).

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Sunday 9 June 2013

Gulliver's Travels & The Gunpowder Bag.

Gunpowder bags were used in the 18th century for carrying extra gunpowder, but these bags were usually contained in another pack, such as a knapsack. But in the 17th century it seems these gunpowder bags were carried instead of a powder horn. Have you ever read Gulliver's Travels? In that book a powder bag is mentioned, & that was the first time I had ever heard of such a powder bag, and the last time, until now. Here is a 17th century still life painting showing such a gunpowder bag.
... Oeil Still Life with a Bird Cage, Birdcalls, and a Powder-Bag By JOHANNES LEEMANS 
(The Hague c. 1633 – The Hague 1688)

I would say that this painting shows a leather waist belt attached to the powder bag proving that this bag at least was worn at the waist and not over the shoulder. The strap may be the same, but as you can see this strap is not buckled, leading me to think that it was not simply slung over the shoulder across the chest.