Now for the encouragement of his men, he [the head of a family with servants] must not do as many have done (more through ignorance than desire) carry many mouths and no meat; but rather much meat for a few mouths. Want of due maintenance produceth nothing but a grumbling spirit with a sluggish idleness; when as those servants be well provided for, go through their employments with speed and chearfulness. For meal, it will be requisite to carry a hogshead and an half for every one that is a labourer, to keep him till he may receive the fruit of his own labours, which will be a year and a half after his arrival, if he land in May or June. He must likewise carry malt, beef, butter, cheese, some pease, good wines, vinegar, strong-waters, &c. Whosoever transports more of these than he himself useth, the overplus being sold, will yield as much profit as any other staple commodity. Every man likewise must carry over good store of apparel; for if he come to buy there, he will find it dearer than in England. Woollen cloth is a very good commodity, and linen better; as holland, lockram, flaxen, hempen, callico stuffs, linsey woolsies, and blue callico, green sayes for housewife's aprons, hats, boots, shoes, good Irish stockings, which if they be good, are much more serviceable than knit ones; all kind of grocery wares, such as sugar, prunes, raisins, currants, honey, nutmegs, cloves, &c soap, candles, and lamps, &c. All manner of household stuff is very good trade there, as pewter and brass, for the use of that country; warming-pans and stewing pans be of necessary use, and good traffick there. All manner of iron wares, as all manner of nails for houses, and all manner of spikes for building of boats, ships, and fishing stages; all manner of tools for workmen, hoes for planters, broad and narrow for setting and weeding; with axes, both broad and pitching axes. All manner of augers, piercing bits, whip-saws, two handed saws, froes, both for the riving of pailes, and laths, rings for beetle heads, and iron wedges; though all these be made in the country (there being divers blacksmiths) yet being a heavy commodity, and taking but a little storage, it is cheaper to carry such commodities out of England. Glass ought not to be forgotten of any that desire to benefit themselves, or the country; if it be well leaded, and carefully packed up, I know no commodity better for portage or sale. Here likewise must not be forgotten all utensils for the sea, as barbels, splitting knives, leads, and cod-hooks, and lines, mackrel hooks and lines, shark-hooks, seines, or bass-nets, large and strong, herring nets, &c. Such as would eat fowl, must not forget their six foot guns, their good powder, and shot of all sorts; a great round shot called Barnstable shot, is the best; being made of a blacker lead than ordinary shot. Furthermore, good pooldavies [a heavy canvas] to make sails for boots, roads, anchors for boats and pinnaces, are good; sea-coal, iron, lead, and mill-stones, flints, ordnances, and whatsoever a man conceive is good for the country, that will lie as ballast, he cannot be a loser by it. And lest I should forget a thing of so great importance, no man must neglect to provide himself, or those belonging to him, his ammunition, for the defence of himself and the country. For there is no man there that bears a head, but that bears military arms; even boys of fourteen years of age are practiced with men in military discipline, every three weeks. Whosoever shall carry over drums and English colours, pattesons [spear that is carried in front of troops], halberds, pikes, muskets, bandeleroes, with swords, shall not need to fear good gain for them; such things being wanting in the country.
Plymouth Harbour Settlement.