A LIVING HISTORY BLOG.

18TH CENTURY LIVING HISTORY IN AUSTRALIA.

Tuesday, 10 September 2019

Museum of Appalachia to Host “Days of the Pioneer” Antique Exposition - September 13th & 14th


Museum of Appalachia

P.O. Box 1189, Norris, TN 37828

Phone: 865-494-7680 or 494-0514

E-mail: janmarshall@museumofappalachia.org

www.museumofappalachia.org


Museum of Appalachia to Host “Days of the Pioneer” Antique Exposition - September 13th & 14th


The Museum is located 16 miles north of Knoxville, one mile east of I-75 at Exit 122. For additional information call (865) 494-7680 or visit the website at: www.museumofappalachia.org.

Sunday, 8 September 2019

Tools Made from Rasps or Files


Tools Historic Maritime I (1607-1676): The First Colonial Dominion The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 Blacksmiths re-use worn or damaged files and rasps by making them into something else. All the tools listed here are also listed in the sections and categories given. Historic Maritime I (1607-1676): The First Colonial Dominion Sub Category Woodworking: Axes and Hatchets 102409T1 Hatchet 13 1/2" long, 3 1/8" cutting edge It has a forge-welded edge. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T1web1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T1web2.jpg SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools TAB1010 Stone drill 8 1/2" long This stone drill has clearly been re-fashioned from a used blacksmith rasp. It was made in the 17th or 18th century. It is typical of the type of tool early settlers would have used to drill a mooring hole. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tab1007.jpg SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 42602T4 Drawknife 10" wide, 4 1/2" wide blade This hand-forged tool has been carefully refashioned from file steel. The short chubby handles are in the English style and are made of carefully cut and glued leather. This nifty tool is difficult to date; it is probably made in the 18th century. It is displayed in the Maritime I case because it is so typical of the homemade tools of the early colonial period. This tool is, in fact, exactly what a small drawshave in the tool kits of the first New England settlers could have looked like. BDTM Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic SubCategory Agricultural Implements 102409T2 Grafting froe 13" long, 4" wide, 2 3/4" cutting edge DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T2web1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T2web2.jpg 913108T47A Grafting iron 9 1/2" long, 2 3/4" long blade DTM Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory TBF3501 Bench vise 7" high, 2 1/2" wide The hold down is made from a recycled farriers' rasp. DTM 3114T3 Hoof knife 6" long, 1 1/4" wide, 2" edge DTM 61601T5 Tin snips 12 3/4" long These are clearly reforged from a file. The first rolled tin dates to the early 18th century. This reforged smith-made tool is at least 200 years old. DTM SubCategory Cobbler and Saddler Tools 1 Tools Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 62406T3 Curriers' slick fleshing knife 6" long, 2" blade It is forge-welded from a recycled rasp. DTM SubCategory Domestic Utensils 11301T1 Block knife 20 5/7" long with 15 3/4" chopping arm and 5" wide iron blade The iron component of this food and/or tobacco chopper is made of a recycled farriers' file. DTM TBF3000 Cleaver 8 3/8" long with a 2 1/2" blade It was forged out of an old rasp. DTM SubCategory Knives 81101T14 Crooked knife 8 1/2" long, 3" blade Crooked knives are especially common in northern New England where they were used by Native Americans and European settlers for many purposes including basket-making and working birch bark. This knife has been reforged from an old file or rasp, one of early American artisans' most important sources of recycled forged steel. The crosshatched carving on the nicely fashioned applewood (?) handle suggests a Native American user. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/81101t14.jpg SubCategory Logging Tools 913108T49 Spud 8 1/2" long, 2" wide DTM SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools 40501T4 Pry bar 21 3/4" long Refashioned from an old rasp, this rip is a classic example of recycling a dull rasp. With a nicely forged rattail hanger, this tool is probably late 18th century. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools 31602T2 Turn screw 19 1/2" long with 15" long and 5/8" wide blade It has a nicely turned handle with a recycled iron ferrule. A recycled file has been used as the turn screw. An unusual hole has been wrought and drilled in the turn screw center. DTM TJR1301 Turn screw 12 1/2" long, 3 1/2" handle This shows the typical recycling of used rasps. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 81801T11 Drawknife 6" long, 3 1/4" blade This carefully wrought shave is made from the recycled steel of a rasp or file and predates the patternmakers' drawknives that it resembles. Its use is unknown. DTM 2 Tools Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 31702T2 Drawknife 10 1/2" wide, 5 5/8" blade This is an excellent example of an edge tool made out of recycled file steel with English style handles. DTM 32412T2 Drawknife 14" long, 8 1/2" long blade This drawknife is crudely welded together from a file and two separate pieces of steel. Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM 913108T39 Drawshave 20 3/4" long, 7 3/4" blade This shave is made from a recycled rasp or file. DTM 111001T21 Toothed chisel 3 7/16" long, 2" cutting head with 17 teeth This is an excellent example of recycling file steel. Its use is unknown; it is too delicate for stone facing. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Planes 81101T12 Coachmakers' router 13 3/8" wide, 7/16" wide cutter This once common 18th century tool shows indications of being refashioned from an old file or rasp. DTM SubCategory Wrenches 43006T4 Wagon wrench 3/4" and 13/16" wide wrench openings It is a curved wrench, forge-welded and hand-filed from a handmade rasp. It is a nice example of an 18th century wagon wrench. DTM Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution SubCategory Agricultural Implements TCR1001A Grafting froe 8 5/8" long with a 3 1/4" blade This tool is refashioned from an old file or rasp. It was a basic necessity for Davistown residents maintaining orchards in the 19th century. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tcz1006.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tcr1001a.jpg Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory 913108T7 Blacksmiths' tongs 13" long DTM 913108T37 Blacksmiths' tools (5) A) 2 1/2"; B) 9 1/4"; C) 6 1/2"; D) 1 3/4"; E) 7 3/4" This is a set of tools a blacksmith may have made for his own use. They consist of: B) grafting tool, C) spud, D) wedge, and two farriers' hoof cutters A) and E). DTM 021812T4 Clinch cutter This is a farriers' tool rendered out of a recycled rasp or file. DTM 3 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 032103T3 Farriers' chisel 7 3/8" long, 2" long cutter This is an excellent example of recycled steel. Originally a steel rasp, worn out rasps were saved and reworked into other useful edge tools. The peened top cutting edge reflects the transition from forged iron to a hammered steel cutting edge. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032103t3_p1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032103t3_p2.jpg TG1010 Punch 5 1/4" long DTM 021812T6 Wedge 3" long, 1 1/4" wide This is possibly a farriers' or blacksmiths' tool made from a recycled rasp or file. It has a hand-drilled hole of 1/4" diameter that might be used for a handle. DTM SubCategory Cobbler and Saddler Tools TG1007 Tack pry 11 3/8" long It is made from a file. DTM SubCategory Coopers' Tools 81801T13A Coopers' _____? 6" long, 4" angle extension This tool is characterized by the same grooved crease found in all coopers' hammers, though slightly narrower (1/8") than the crease in 81801T13 (1/4"). It is clearly refashioned from recycled file steel and is very unusual. A specific identification is welcomed. DTM 092409T3 Coopers' adz 9 1/3" long, 1" wide with a 12" long handle DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/092409T3web2.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/092409T3web4.jpg SubCategory Domestic Utensils 913108T37A Food chopper 6 1/2" long, 7 3/8" wide blade DTM SubCategory Hammers 032203T3 Snowball hammer 8 3/4" long, 2 3/16" cutter at one end This is a typical example of a late 18th century or early 19th century recycling of a precious forged steel rasp. After becoming dull, this rasp was reshaped into a tool for knocking the snow and ice from a shoed horse. What was the cutting edge used for? Notice that the malleable wrought iron top edge of the tool has been bent over from use, whereas the steel cutting edge shows no evidence of wear. This illustrates the varying amount of carbon in different sections of this tool. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032203t3_p1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032203t3_p2.jpg SubCategory Knives 913108T15 Crooked knife 8 1/2" long, 3/4" long blade This is typical of the forge-welded crooked knife used by the settlers of North America for basketmaking and other uses. DTM 4 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 TG1009 Knife 9 1/2" long, 3 3/8" handle DTM SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools TG1006 Brick chisel 5 3/4" long, 1 1/2" wide It does not have a handle. DTM TG1008 Unidentified tool 16" long, 14" wood handle DTM Watchmakers, Jewelers, and Silversmiths' Tools SubCategory 041505T28 Spinning tool 15" long including a 14" wood handle, 2 1/2" long pewter ferrule The wood handle holds the tanged steel chisel. This cutting tool is clearly made of recycled file steel. It is an uncommon tool from a long lost trade. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools TCC3011 Burin 4" long This commonplace tool is refashioned out of an old file and has a beautifully turned handle. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 22411T3 Drawknife 15 1/2" long, 6 1/2" wide, 10" long blade This drawknife is handmade from a file. DTM 913108T23 Drawknife 12" long, 7 3/4" long blade DTM TG1004 Drawshave 13 5/8" long, 9 1/2" blades It has no handles. DTM 10407T4 Drawshave 10 1/2" wide with a 7" cutting edge The handles are handmade and it is obviously forged from an old file. It is a typical edge tool utilizing the strategy of recycling a high quality (probably English or German) steel file. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/10407t4.jpg Woodworking: Edge Tools - Imported Cast Steel SubCategory Peter Stubs Tools TCC1008 Chisel 4 1/8" long, 3/4" wide "Stubs" It is made from one of Stub's recycled files. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/bioStubs.htm Woodworking: Edge Tools Made in Maine SubCategory 3114T4 Crook knife 9" long, 4" blade LPC 5 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 SubCategory Woodworking: Other Tools TG1003 Center punch 3 1/2" wide DTM TCR1009 Turnscrew 12 1/2" long, 8 3/8" long blade This tool has been refashioned out of an old file. DTM TG1005 Wedge 1 3/4" wide DTM TG1011 Wedge 4 5/8" long, 2 5/16" wide DTM TG1015 Wedge 2 3/8" wide DTM SubCategory Wrenches TG1001 Wrench 13 1/2" long, 9/16" and 1 3/14" open ends DTM TG1002 Wrench 8" long, 3/4" and 5/8" wide open ends DTM Historic Maritime IV (1840-1865): The Early Industrial Revolution Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory 32912T7 Ox shoe 4 1/2" long "L" Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM SubCategory Coopers' Tools 913108T45 Coopers' bung 7 3/4" long, 3 3/4" long blade It is unusual to see a coopers' bung used for a handle attached to a curved blade. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 22411T16 Drawknife 8" long, 4" wide, 5" blade It is hand-forged from an old file. DTM The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools 30311T7 Screwdriver 12" long, 1 1/2" wide It is handmade from a file. DTM 6 Tools The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 30911T6 Tapered reamer 15" long, 8" blade This convex-shaped reamer is handmade from a file. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 72714T1 Drawknife blade 11" long, 5 3/8" cutting edge, 4 1/4" handle tangs This drawknife is fashioned from a reforged file. LPC 31311T12 Gouge 17 " long, 11" long and 1" wide blade, 6" long handle DTM Woodworking: Edge Tools Made in Maine SubCategory 41212T6 Drawknife 16 1/2" long, 9 1/2" long cutting edge "T.C. JACKSON" "STINSON" This tool was made in Bath, Maine circa 1869 or earlier from a recycled steel file or rasp. Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/publications/volume10.html 22411T6 Drawknife 13 1/2" long, 5" long handles, 7 1/2" long blade "J. T. BUDGE" This drawknife is handmade from an old file. Possibly Budge was the maker/owner. The Penobscot County ME Archives History - Businesses listings for Lee in 1883 has J. T. Budge as a blacksmith. The Maine Register of 1889 lists J. T. Budge & Son as blacksmiths in Lee, Maine. DTM 7


Friday, 30 August 2019

Wooden Clothing Buttons.

Wooden Clothing Buttons.

American Artifacts of Personal Adornment, 1680-1820:


Blank/Mold: A “Blank/Mold” is a bone or wood button with either zero holes or one hole. The single hole was a product of manufacturing, when these buttons were cut with a lathe or a carpenter’s brace and bit (Hinks 1988:67). They could be used as the backs to stamped metal buttons, the supporting disc for cloth buttons, or more holes could be drilled in them to make simple, one-piece bone or wooden buttons (ibid).
https://www.daacs.org/wp-content/uploads/buttons.pdf
"Wood buttons were also made in colonial crafts shops and homes. During the 18th century, most wooden buttons were plain and utilitarian. In 1770, Benjamin Randolph advertised his apple, holy, and laurel buttons (Luscomb, ix). Decorated wooden buttons, which were carved, painted, and inlaid, were popular in the 19th century".
https://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1042&context=utk_chanhonoproj


Wooden Button Moulds.
Wood backed 
 brass button with catgut shank.

To date I have not come across any images of original 18th century wooden buttons with more than one hole, other than the sample above which is a wood backing for a brass button.
Keith.