A LIVING HISTORY BLOG.

18TH CENTURY LIVING HISTORY IN AUSTRALIA.

Saturday, 25 March 2017

National Firearms Agreement Australia 2017. Personal protection is not a genuine reason for using a firearm!!!


Personal protection is not a genuine reason for using a firearm.


NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT Council of Australian Governments An agreement between n the Commonwealth of Australia and n the States and Territories, being: t The State of New South Wales t The State of Victoria t The State of Queensland t The State of Western Australia t The State of South Australia t The State of Tasmania t The Australian Capital Territory t The Northern Territory of Australia February 2017 2 of 14 NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT OPENING STATEMENT 1. The National Firearms Agreement constitutes a national approach to the regulation of firearms. The Agreement affirms that firearms possession and use is a privilege that is conditional on the overriding need to ensure public safety, and that public safety is improved by the safe and responsible possession, carriage, use, registration, storage and transfer of firearms. 2. This Agreement sets out minimum requirements in relation to the regulation of firearms. Nothing in this Agreement prevents jurisdictions from adopting additionalincluding more restrictiveregulations. 3. Having regard to the National Firearms Trafficking Policy Agreement, first agreed in 2002, jurisdictions agree to establish or maintain substantial penalties for the illegal possession of a firearm. PROVISION TO MAINTAIN FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 4. The Council of Australian Governments and its subordinate bodies will periodically consider emerging issues relating to this Agreement, including, for example, improvements and advancements in firearm technologies. Issues for consideration will be those which will ensure that the Agreement remains true to its fundamental aspects, being: the requirement for a genuine reason for possessing or using a firearm, the appropriate categorisation of firearms, the registration of firearms, firearms licensing (including fit and proper person requirements), the requirement for a permit to acquire each firearm, the safe and secure storage of firearms, the recording of firearms sales, and suitable firearms transaction practices. RESTRICTIONS ON CERTAIN FIREARMS 5. The Commonwealth will restrict the importation of: (a) all semi-automatic long arms and pump action shotguns, and all partsincluding magazinesfor such firearms, included in Licence Categories C and D (b) magazines with a capacity greater than thirty for long arms and magazines with a capacity greater than twenty for handguns (c) all handguns for sporting shooting purposes other than those which meet the prescribed characteristicsincluding barrel length, magazine capacity and calibrein paragraph 14(b)(i) (d) handgun parts for sport shooting purposes (for example slides, barrels, receivers and frames) which could be used to assemble a prohibited handgun or convert a permitted handgun into a prohibited handgun. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 3 of 14 6. Jurisdictions will ban the sale, resale, transfer, possession, manufacture and use of those semi-automatic long arms and pump action shotguns included in Licence Category C and D other than in the following exceptional circumstances: (a) military use (b) police or other government purposes (c) occupational categories of licence holders who have been licensed for a specified purpose, including i. the extermination of animals ii. film and theatrical armourers iii. firearm dealers iv. firearm manufacturers v. additional occupational needs and other limited purposes as authorised by legislation or Ministerial discretion (d) collectors (e) in the case of Category C shotguns i. members of the Australian Clay Target Association or clubs affiliated with the Australian Clay Target Association with a medical need to use a Category C shotgun due to a lack of strength or dexterity, or ii. individuals who were on 15 November 1996 registered shooters with the Australian Clay Target Association and who, at that time, possessed a semi-automatic shotgun or pump action repeating shotgun for use in clay target events. 7. Jurisdictions will restrict the importation, possession and use of handguns for sporting purposes to individuals meeting recognised sporting shooter classifications in the Olympic and Commonwealth Games and for other accredited events that meet the conditions in paragraph 14(b)(i). 8. Jurisdictions will ban competitive shooting involving those long arms which are restricted from import, except for those individuals who meet the conditions in paragraph 13(b)(iii). GENUINE REASONS AND NEED FOR ACQUIRING, POSSESSING OR USING A FIREARM 9. Individuals must demonstrate a genuine reason for acquiring, possessing or using a firearm. The genuine reasons and relevant qualifying statements are listed in paragraphs 13-23. 10. Personal protection is not a genuine reason for acquiring, possessing or using a firearm. 11. Over and above satisfaction of the “genuine reason” test, an applicant for a licence must demonstrate a genuine need for the particular type of firearm (excluding Category A firearms). 12. Only certain categories of firearms can be acquired, possessed or used under each genuine reason. Categories of firearms are listed in paragraphs 25-29. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 4 of 14 GENUINE REASONS 13. Sports shooters – long arms (a) Sports shooters must have a valid membership with an approved club (defined as clubs participating in shooting sports recognised in the charters of such major sporting events as the Commonwealth Games, Olympic Games or World Championships). (b) Firearms permitted for acquisition, possession or use under this genuine reason are: i. Category A ii. Category B iii. Category C shotguns, limited to 1 members of the Australian Clay Target Association or clubs affiliated with the Australian Clay Target Association with a medical need to use a Category C shotgun due to a lack of strength or dexterity, or 2 individuals who were on 15 November 1996 registered shooters with the Australian Clay Target Association and who, at that time, possessed a semi-automatic shotgun or pump action repeating shotgun for use in clay target events. 14. Sports shooters – handguns (a) Sports shooters must have a valid membership with an approved club. (b) Firearms permitted for acquisition, possession or use under this genuine reason are: i. Category H – the firearm must be designed or adapted for competition target shooting, or must have a barrel length of at least 120mm for a semi-automatic handgun or 100mm for a revolver or a single shot handgun. If the firearm is fitted with a firearm magazine or cylinder, it must have a capacity of not more than 10 rounds. The calibre of the firearm must not exceed .38” (with the exception of cases listed under paragraph 14(c)). (c) Handguns with a calibre greater than .38” but no greater than .45” are permitted only where shooters are competing in the two accredited events known as Metallic Silhouette and Single (Western) Action. 15. Recreational shooters/hunters (a) Recreational shooters/hunters must produce proof of permission from a landowner. (b) Firearms permitted for acquisition, possession or use under this genuine reason are: i. Category A ii. Category B 16. Primary producers (a) Primary producers must satisfy the licensing authority that there is a genuine need for the use of the firearm which pertains to the applicant’s occupation and which cannot be achieved by some other means. The application is to be approved by the Commissioner of the Police who may impose conditions as to the use of the firearms, including as to the geographical location of its use. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 5 of 14 (b) Firearms permitted for acquisition, possession or use under this genuine reason are: i. Category A ii. Category B iii. Category C – where the licensing authority is satisfied that there is a genuine need for the use of the firearm which cannot be achieved by some other means (including the use of Category A or B firearms). Primary producers are limited to one Category C shotgun and one Category C rifle iv. Category D – where the licensing authority is satisfied that there is a genuine need for the use of a Category D firearm for the purposes of controlling vertebrate pest animals in the course of primary production activities. Jurisdictions may require individuals to meet additional requirements (for example, safety training and marksmanship) to qualify for Category D acquisition, possession or use, or to establish certain facts (for example, lack of other pest control options) in order to demonstrate need. 17. Occupational requirement (other rural purposes and professional shooters for nominated purposes) (a) Persons with an occupational interest must satisfy the licensing authority that there is a genuine need for the use of the firearm which pertains to the applicant’s occupation and which cannot be achieved by some other means. The application is to be approved by the Commissioner of the Police who may impose conditions as to the use of the firearms, including as to the geographical location of its use. (b) Firearms permitted for acquisition, possession or use under this genuine reason are: i. Category A ii. Category B 18. Security employees (a) Firearms permitted for acquisition, possession or use under this genuine reason are: i. Category A ii. Category H 19. Collectors (a) Collectors will be regulated by means of a licence and permit system which tests their bona fides. (b) Firearms permitted for acquisition and possession under this genuine reason are: i. Category A – must be rendered temporarily inoperable ii. Category B – must be rendered temporarily inoperable iii. Category C – must be rendered temporarily inoperable iv. Category D – must be rendered permanently inoperable v. Category H – must be rendered temporarily inoperable (c) For the purposes of handguns, jurisdictions agree that they will accredit historical societies. Historical societies are required to notify police of a member’s expulsion as well as the reasons for expulsion. Accredited historical societies will be indemnified from civil or legal liability where they notify police in good faith of their belief that a person is unfit to hold a collector’s licence. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 6 of 14 20. Heirlooms (a) Jurisdictions agree that where the owner of an heirloom firearm is unable to establish a genuine reason for possession of that firearm and/or does not qualify for a collector’s licence, jurisdictions may issue the heirloom owner with a special category of licence. The requirements of that heirloom licence must be that: i. before the licence is issued, the owner provides sufficient proof of inheritance of the heirloom ii. the licence apply only to a single gun, or a matched pair or set iii. all heirloom firearms be rendered permanently inoperable iv. the licence not authorise the discharge of the heirloom firearm or firearms in any circumstance. 21. Firearm dealers (a) Jurisdictions must have regulations addressing firearm dealers. 22. Firearm manufacturers (a) Jurisdictions must have regulations addressing firearm manufacturers. 23. Film and/or theatrical armourers (a) Jurisdictions must have regulations addressing film and theatrical armourers. CATEGORIES OF FIREARMS 24. The following categories are to be used in the licensing of firearms. 25. Licence Category A (a) Air rifles (b) Rimfire rifles (excluding semi-automatic) (c) Shotguns (other than semi-automatic, pump action or lever action) (d) Rimfire rifle/shotgun combinations 26. Licence Category B (a) Muzzle-loading firearms (b) Single shot, double barrel and repeating centrefire rifles (c) Centrefire rifle/shotgun combinations (d) Lever action shotguns with a magazine capacity no greater than five rounds 27. Licence Category C (a) Semi-automatic rimfire rifles with a magazine capacity no greater than 10 rounds (b) Semi-automatic and pump action shotguns with a magazine capacity no greater than five rounds 28. Licence Category D (a) Semi-automatic centrefire rifles designed or adapted for military purposes or a firearm which substantially duplicates those rifles in design, function or appearance (b) Non-military style self-loading centrefire rifles NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 7 of 14 (c) Semi-automatic, pump action and lever action shotguns with a magazine capacity greater than five rounds (d) Semi-automatic rimfire rifles with a magazine capacity greater than 10 rounds 29. Licence Category H (a) All handguns, including air pistols NATIONWIDE REGISTRATION 30. Jurisdictions agree to the nationwide registration of all firearms. Jurisdictions will record sufficient information to be able to uniquely identify each firearm, including details prescribed by the national information-sharing hub. 31. Jurisdictions agree to store registrations on a system which is able to share information with the national information-sharing hub. LICENSING 32. Jurisdictions agree to maintain a uniform system of testing applicants for firearms licences. 33. In addition to the demonstration of genuine reason, a licence applicant must be required to: (a) be aged 18 or over (b) be a fit and proper person (c) be able to prove identity through a 100 point system requiring a passport or multiple types of identification (d) undertake adequate safety training (see paragraph 35). 34. A licence must: (a) bear a photograph of the licensee (b) be endorsed with the category of the firearm (c) be issued after a waiting period of not less than 28 days (d) be issued for a period of no more than five years (e) contain a reminder of safe storage responsibilities (f) be issued subject to undertakings to comply with storage requirements, to provide details of proposed storage provisions at the time of licensing, and to submit to a mutually arranged (with due recognition of privacy) inspection by licensing authorities of storage facilities. 35. Requisite training (a) Jurisdictions agree that first time licence applicants must complete an accredited course in safety training for firearms. The course must be: i. comprehensive and standardised across Australia for all licence categories ii. subject to accreditation of the course syllabus, by an appropriate authority, and a system of accredited instructors to bring prospective licensees to the required standard with a focus on firearms law, firearms safety and firearms competency NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 8 of 14 iii. monitored as to content of courses and the skills of instructors by firearms regulatory authorities. (b) Jurisdictions agree to have a separate specialised training course for individuals employed by the security industry. 36. Sports shooters – handguns (a) Sports shooters must have a valid membership with an approved club. i. Clubs will have the power to request a police check on a person prior to accepting them as a member of a club. ii. A person applying to join a club must provide that club with two character references from people they have known for at least two years. iii. Clubs must endorse a member’s application to acquire a handgun. In endorsing the application, clubs should: 1 confirm that the licensee has adequate storage arrangements in place 2 specify for which competition shooting discipline the handgun is required. iv. To prevent ‘club shopping’, a person wishing to join a club must provide to that club details of any other shooting clubs to which they belong and details of the firearms they possess. In addition, clubs are empowered to request information from licensing authorities on a member’s or applicant’s possession of handguns and their membership of other clubs. v. Shooting clubs are required to provide licensing authorities with an audited annual report providing member details, firearms possessed, and participation rates. (b) Jurisdictions agree to a system for graduated access to handguns for legitimate sporting shooters based on training, experience and event participation. The system will be based on graduated access to handguns over a period of 12 months and will incorporate the following principles: i. a person is required to obtain a police check and submit this with their application to join a shooting club ii. during the first six months a person will not be permitted to own a handgun, must satisfactorily complete a firearm safety training course and meet minimum participation rates iii. if a club certifies that a person has satisfactorily complied with the conditions attached to the first six months’ probation, then during the second six months a person will only be permitted to own one .22” calibre rimfire pistol and one .177” air pistol, or one centrefire pistol and one .177” calibre air pistol. (c) After the initial period of 12 months, acquisition of additional handguns is subject to demonstration of genuine need, confirmation that the licensee has adequate storage arrangements in place, and specification of the competition shooting discipline for which the handgun is required. 37. Collectors (a) The licensing process must include a provision for an initial inspection of storage facilities and for subsequent mutually arranged inspections. All such inspections will be subject to the recognition of the individual’s right to privacy. The onus of defining NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 9 of 14 ‘bona fide firearms collector’ rests with each State and Territory. However, the following principles must underpin the regulation of bona fide firearms collectors: i. the firearms which are the subject of the collection should be of or above a defined age ii. firearms in a collection which have been manufactured after 1 January 1946 must be rendered inoperable (whether or not they are otherwise only required to be rendered temporarily inoperable according to paragraph 19(b)) iii. collectors may not possess ammunition for a collection firearm iv. any attempt to restore firearms in the collection to usable condition should be regarded as a serious offence and subject to severe penalties v. all operating firearms which are owned by the collector under separate licensing arrangements should be subject to the same level of regulation as any other operating firearm vi. for the purposes of the collection of Category H firearms, genuine historical collectors must 1 be a member of a state or territory accredited historical firearm collectors society 2 have their licence application endorsed by an accredited historical firearms collectors society 3 comply with strict storage requirements 4 display a commitment as a student of arms in order to collect or retain post-1946 handguns. 38. Grounds for licence refusal or cancellation and seizure of firearms (a) Jurisdictions agree to set out in legislation the circumstances in which licence applications (including renewals) are to be refused, licences are to be cancelled, or firearms are to be seized. The following minimum standards must apply: i. general reasons – not of good character, conviction for an offence involving violence within the past five years, unsafe storage, contravention of firearms law, where it can be shown that the loss or theft of a firearm was due to negligence or fraud on the part of the licensee, no longer has a genuine reason, not in public interest due to (defined) circumstances, not notifying of change of address, or licence obtained by deception ii. specific reasons – where applicant/licence holder has been the subject of an Apprehended Violence Order, Domestic Violence Order, restraining order or conviction for assault with a weapon/aggravated assault within the past five years iii. mental or physical fitness – reliable evidence of a mental or physical condition which would render the applicant unsuitable for acquiring, possessing or using a firearm. (b) In regard to 38(a)(iii), a balance is to be struck between the rights of the individual to privacy and fair treatment, and the responsibility of authoritieson behalf of the communityto prevent danger to the individual and the wider community. (c) Jurisdictions may impose appropriate penalties, in addition to licence cancellation or seizure of firearms, for failure to comply with security and storage conditions. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 10 of 14 (d) Jurisdictions will establish an appeal process for refusal of a licence application or cancellation of a licence. (e) Specifically in relation to the cancellation of Category H licences, jurisdictions agree: i. to introduce or maintain laws allowing the Commissioner of Police to refuse and revoke handgun licences and applications on the basis of criminal intelligence or any other relevant information with consideration to appropriate safeguards including expert advice ii. that members of approved shooting clubs be required to attend a minimum number of shooting events offered by the club, and that failure to meet the minimum participation level will make a person liable to have their licence revoked iii. that sporting shooters meet minimum participation rates annually, specifically that a sports shooter must participate in a minimum number of six club organised competitive shooting matches, and for each different type of handgun owned for different events the sporting shooter must undertake at least four club organised shoots iv. that clubs must notify licensing authorities of concerns about club members’ suitability to hold a licence, and indemnify clubs for providing such information to licensing authorities about the suitability of club members to hold a licence. In particular, jurisdictions will 1 require sporting shooting clubs to report to police their concerns that a person may pose a danger if in possession of a handgun 2 require sporting shooting clubs to notify police of a member’s expulsion and the reasons for expulsion 3 indemnify sporting shooting clubs from civil or legal liability if they notify police in good faith of matters identified in paragraphs 38(e)(iv)(1) and 38(e)(iv)(2) 4 require sporting shooting clubs to ensure that a person whose licence has been revoked or suspended does not use a handgun at the sporting club v. to support the operation of the fit and proper person test throughout the life of the licence allowing for the licensing authorities’ revocation of a person’s licence and seizure of handguns on grounds of not being a fit and proper person at any time vi. to require suspension/cancellation of licences and seizure of firearms immediately upon the issue of an Apprehended Violence Order or Domestic Violence Order to a firearm licence holder. 39. Medical authorities reporting model (a) Jurisdictions agree that reporting provisions for medical authorities be improved or maintained by indemnifying medical authorities from civil or criminal liability for reporting in good faith to police their concerns that a person may pose a danger if in possession of a firearm or applying for a firearm licence. This is providing that ‘medical authorities’ include medical practitioners, nurses, social workers, psychiatrists, psychologists and professional counsellors. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 11 of 14 40. Mutual recognition (a) Jurisdictions will recognise visiting licensees for the following firearms and purposes: i. Category A and B – sporting, recreational hunting and any other lawful purpose ii. Category C – sporting and any other lawful purpose iii. Category H – sporting and any other lawful purpose (b) Category D and other categories of firearms not listed in this Agreement are not subject to mutual recognition provisions. (c) Where an individual is moving permanently to a new jurisdiction, that jurisdiction will recognise: i. for a period no more than three months, a Category A or B licence issued in another jurisdiction ii. for a period no more than seven days, a Category C, D or H licence issued in another jurisdiction. PERMIT TO ACQUIRE 41. Jurisdictions agree that a separate permit is required for the acquisition of every firearm. 42. Jurisdictions agree that each applicant must establish, to the satisfaction of the licensing authority, that they have a genuine need for acquiring, possessing or using the firearm of the nominated type (excluding Category A firearms). 43. Jurisdictions agree that the issuing of a permit must be subject to a waiting period of at least 28 days to enable appropriate checks to be made on licensees in order to ascertain whether circumstances have occurred since the issuing of the original licence which would render the licensee unsuitable to possess the firearm or which would render the licensee ineligible for that type of firearm. STORAGE 44. Jurisdictions agree that firearms and ammunition must be stored in secure conditions as follows: (a) it must be a precondition to the issuing of a new firearms licence (and on each renewal of licence in respect of existing licence holders) that the licensing authority be satisfied as to the proposed storage and security arrangements (b) legislation must have the effect of making failure to store firearms in the manner required an offence as well as a matter that will lead to the cancellation of the licence and the confiscation of all firearms (c) clear and specific measures must be indicated in legislation for the storage of firearms so that those who possess firearms know their obligations. The following minimum basic standards must apply: i. Licence Category A and B – storage in a locked receptacle constructed of either hard wood or steel with a thickness to ensure it is not easily penetrable. If the weight is less than 150 kilograms, the receptacle shall be fixed to the frame of the floor or wall so as to prevent easy removal. The locks fitted to these receptacles must be of sturdy construction NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 12 of 14 ii. Licence Category C, D and H – storage in a locked, steel safe with a thickness to ensure it is not easily penetrable, bolted to the structure of a building iii. all ammunition must be stored in locked containers separate from any firearms (d) should individuals possessing a firearm wish to store firearms through measures other than those indicated in legislation, they must have the burden of persuading the firearms regulatory authority that they can provide the level of security not less than that required by the relevant approved practices (e) in order to provide for the safekeeping of firearms when they are temporarily away from their usual place of storage, legislation must include a statement that the holder of the licence "must take reasonable care to ensure that the firearm is not lost or stolen and must take reasonable care to ensure that the firearm does not fall into the hands of an unauthorised person" (f) the firearms safety bookletwhich is to be distributed to all new licence applicants prior to attending a course of instructionmust also feature clear and precise information on the obligations of firearms storage (g) security at gun dealer premises must require the dealer meeting such additional requirements as the firearms regulatory authority deems appropriate having regard to the type of activity of the dealer (h) where approval has been given for the possession or use of a firearm for a limited purpose, such as film production, the person authorised must meet such requirements as the firearms regulatory authority deems appropriate having regard to the type of activity for which possession has been authorised. 45. Jurisdictions should consider imposing greater storage requirements where multiple firearms are kept on the same property. 46. Jurisdictions agree to periodically consider the adequacy of their educational literature on storage to ensure that it emphasises the risk of firearms theft and the legislated requirements for safe storage, and that it highlights compliance monitoring activities and the jurisdiction’s rigorous prosecution policy for non-compliance. 47. Jurisdictions must include a declaration in all licence/permit/renewal application forms which requires the applicant to state that they understand the firearm storage and security requirements as required by legislation. 48. Jurisdictions must have a strategic inspection and audit program for storage requirements. 49. Security industry storage (a) Jurisdictions agree that the following minimum storage requirements represent an appropriate standard for storage of firearms used in the security industry: i. up to five handguns 1 metal safe to be securely fastened to solid floor or wall by internal/hidden bolts and hidden within premises 2 individual disabling locks such as barrel or trigger locks to be fitted to the firearm when stored ii. six to fifteen handguns 1 safes to be a minimum weight of 150kg 2 safes to be secured to or within brick or concrete walls and floors NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 13 of 14 3 premises to be fully intruder alarmed, monitored by a graded control room with back-to-base polling via a secure line (or, if unavailable due to remoteness, with radio or GSM backup) 4 panic switches/duress facility to be installed in the premises iii. over fifteen handguns 1 safes to be a minimum weight of 500kg, with dual key locks 2 safes to be secured to or within brick or concrete walls and floors 3 premises to be fully intruder alarmed, monitored by a graded control room with back-to-base polling via a secure line (or, if unavailable due to remoteness, with radio or GSM backup) 4 panic switches/duress facility to be installed in the premises 5 vaults, control rooms, safes, perimeter and internal premises to maintain 24-hour monitoring and recording by CCTV, which is secured and inaccessible. 50. Jurisdictions may adopt the above standards either by way of legislative requirement or by introducing the standards as guidelines which provide Police Commissioners with limited flexibility for special or unique circumstances. 51. There should be at least one annual inspection of firearms and firearms storage facilities used in the security industry. RECORDING OF SALES 52. All firearms sales are to be conducted only by or through a licenced firearms dealer. 53. Jurisdictions agree to the following principles to underpin firearms dealer recording of firearms transactions: (a) firearms dealers are obliged under penalty to ensure that purchasers are appropriately licenced for the firearm being purchased (b) firearms dealers are required to record and maintain details (type, make, calibre and serial number) of each weapon purchased or sold against the identity (name, address and licence number) of the seller or the purchaser (c) firearms dealers are required to provide records to the national register of firearms through the State or Territory licensing authority (d) police personnel investigating a crime or checking the compliance of licenced gun dealers with recording responsibilities should have the right to inspect the records of licenced gun dealers without the need to give notice to the licensee (e) jurisdictions may put in place alternate options for individuals living in remote locations where firearms dealers are not readily available (it may be possible, for instance, to authorise local police officers to certify sales/purchases in such circumstances). 54. Jurisdictions will legislate to allow the sale of ammunition only for those firearms for which the purchaser is licenced, and impose limits on the quantity of ammunition that may be purchased in a given period. 55. On the purchase of ammunition, the relevant licence must be produced. NATIONAL FIREARMS AGREEMENT 14 of 14 56. Jurisdictions should consider requiring dealers to provide their register of transactions to a relevant authority once that dealer’s licence is no longer valid. This should occur within an appropriate timeframe after the licence has become invalid. SALE AND TRANSPORT OF FIREARMS 57. Jurisdictions will introduce or maintain legislation to ensure that, within their own borders: (a) mail order arrangements (irrespective of how those orders were placed, for example via the telephone or internet) will apply strictly on a licenced firearm dealer to licenced firearm dealer basis (b) advertisement of firearms for sale i. be prohibited unless the sale is conducted by or through a licenced firearms dealer ii. list the licence number of the licensed firearms dealer and the owner selling the firearms, and include the serial number by which the firearms are registered (c) the movement of firearms covered by Licence Categories C, D and H must be in accordance with prescribed safety requirements (d) the commercial transport of ammunition with firearms is prohibited (e) packages containing firearms are able to be tracked (f) packages containing firearms must not be packaged or labelled in such a way as to expressly or otherwise indicate their contents. 58. Jurisdictions may put in place alternative options for individuals living in remote locations where firearms dealers are not readily available.



Friday, 24 March 2017

Program to spotlight 17th-century indigenous women. America.

The Adoption of Mary Jemison By Robert Griffing.

The Capt. John Joslin Jr. Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution is sponsoring a program presented by Gail White Usher at 1 p.m. Saturday, April 8 at the Leominster Veterans’ Memorial Center, 100 West St., Leominster.

Or call Chapter Regent Cathy Eska at (978) 290-0118.

Identity of 17th Century shipwreck revealed as The Fame.

Part of the rudder from The Fame.


Thursday, 23 March 2017

Archaeology. Tin Cups & A Wire Bail.


Some time ago I wrote an article about some tin cup fragments that had been found without handles, and that also a wire bail was found with these same fragments (http://woodsrunnersdiary.blogspot.com.au/2012/03/early-to-mid-18th-century-tin-cups.html). Based on this information I made myself a tin cup with a wire handle, but I was never sure whether the wire bail was like a bail on a kettle, or whether it meant a wire handle. Anyway I have since then used my cup in the field, and as I was trying to lighten my pack, I decided to try and use the tin cup with the leather wrapped wire handle for cooking as well as drinking. This did not work. Firstly it was difficult to heat water in the cup without burning the leather on the handle, secondly I found it inconvenient to only have the one vessel. I could not drink and eat at the same time.

Having given this problem further thought I decided to make a second cup with a wire bail, but this time I would make a wire bail such as found on kettles, so I could hang my tin cup over the fire. Given the primary evidence of the two cups found and the presence of the wire bail, this seems to me to be a reasonable thing to do. I used an old spare ball mould as a pair of pliers and constructed the bail without punching holes in the tin.






Original tin cups shown as found. Taken from the PDF.

1 ¼ pounds of iron and brass wire, both thick and thin.
Ft Pontchartrain 1747.
http://www.timothyjkent.com/pontchartrainexcerpts.htm

Examples of gold and silver jewellery dating back to early Egyptian times exist which incorporated hand woven wire meshes, but the earliest evidence of the development of wire weaving on looms for industrial purposes appears to be in the early part of the 18th Century. Wire drawing had existed prior to this for many hundreds of years on a simple scale. Iron ingots were beaten to a flat sheet which was then cut into strips, hammered round, and pulled through a stone die and many products were made from hand wrought wire.
Twisted wire forks have been unearthed at several 18th-century military camp sites.1 These may have been available through the army sutlers, but more than likely were fashioned out of scraps of wire by the soldiers themselves. 
The east well at Bloomsbury yielded two moderately well preserved tin cups and some flattened tin. A wire bail handle (Figure 94, page 239) appeared to belong with the tinware. As the pieces of tin were sorted, it became apparent that the flattened tin included a damaged bottom and part of a side of a tapered vessel. The cups and fragments were taken to Richard Haddick, a historical tinsmith in Wyoming, Delaware, for interpretation and replication. Haddick concluded that there were three fully reproduceable vessels: two cups and a basin. As nearly as possible, the construction methods of the eighteenth-century originals were duplicated, using hot-dipped tinplate of the type that was available to the original maker.



Hide Tanning the Woods Cree Way

Reenactment A Living History

Not all Living History events are public, nor are they always a part of Historical Reenactment. Historical Reenactment events are for the most part focused on the military lifestyle of the period, whilst Living History is more about the lifestyle of the common people.