A LIVING HISTORY BLOG.

18TH CENTURY LIVING HISTORY IN AUSTRALIA.

Sunday, 17 August 2014

Mazamet Woolen Cloth.



Mazamet.
A place in France.
Mazamet in France is where it is said that fellmongering originated.
Sheepskin Fellmongering: The use of wool fleece from dead sheep where the fleece literally falls off the sheepskin or is pulled off.the skin after the skin has been removed from the dead sheep . Woolen cloth known as Mazamet was produced in Mazamet, France.

22 ells of mazamet and 4 ounces of Rennes thread in 4 capotes


The word "Fellmongery" applies to an industrial plant whose purpose is to remove the wool from sheepskins. The method is as follows:
§  1. Sheepskins are scraped free of fat on the flesh side.
§  2. Skins are soaked in water for a certain time. This time depends on weather and temperature.
§  3. Skins are hung on wooden racks between 12 and 24 hours.
§  4. After the skin follicles have started to open, the skins are removed from the racks and place on wooden racks. Today, the skins are classed or sorted by registered woolclassers, but originally the only sorting would have been the separation of white and coloured skins.
§  5. A wooden comb, shaped to the horse, is forced along the sheepskin, removing the wool in one or two passes.
§  6. The resultant wool, in it's wet state, is laid out to dry in netting.
§  7. Sheepskins, now clean of wool, are also dried on racks. The follicles will close up again and the skins are used for uppers of shoes in the boot trade.
§  8. The wool is referred to as "lave a dos" or part scoured (part washed).
§  9. Wool scourers now scour (or wash) the wool fully in preparation for spinning into yarn. This would have been done by hand, but now is carded, combed and spun mechanically.
The above system of fellmongery was in vogue in the late 18th century and possibly earlier. This process continued to be the wool removal method until the 1980's when chemical processes were used to separate the wool from the skins. (source: David Wischer 2006) 
http://www.council.robe.sa.gov.au/page.aspx?u=544

Mazamet
Sheepskin centre in southern France. Famous for its Mazamet Slats, which were sheepskins with the wool removed by sweating, which maximizes the value of the wool, but does not do a lot of good for the skins. http://www.mikeredwood.com/places
A Worker in a Fellmonger's Yard by W H Pyne, 1805



Indian Trade Goods 1759.


Fifteen hundred ells of limbourg, half blue and half red
Six hundred ells of sempitemc
Fifty plumes of different colors
Fifty pairs of copper shoe-buckles
Twenty three-point blankets
Six hundred two-and-a-half-point blankets
Two hundred two-and-a-half-point Bazas blankets
Eight hundred trade shirts for men, as long in front as in the back
Three hundred fifty thirty-caliber trade guns·
Six thousand five hundred pounds of powder
Two hundred fifty ells of St. Jean cloth
Ten thousand gun flints
[fol. 328v] One thousand woodcutters’ knives
Twelve hundred clasp or Flatin knives with antler handles and dogs’ heads
Five hundred trade belts
Two thousand strike-a-lights
Five hundred seventy-six wooden combs
Four thousand pounds of flat iron for hatchets. pickaxes, and tomahawks
Four hundred pairs of ordinary scissors
Eighty pounds of iron wire of different thicknesses
Eighty pounds of brass wire which has not been annealed and in small rolls
Twenty-five dozen pewter,buttons
One hundred hats decorated with three-inch imitation silver braid
One hundred ordinary plain hats
Two thousand worms
Fifty lengths of scarlet woolen ribbon
Three thousand ells of gold and imitation silver lribbon}, half of it in braid
Fifty dozen buttons, gold and imitation silver, for suits. likewise half and half
Eighty pounds of vermilion, in pure powder. in small bags of one pound
Eighty pounds of red lead
Three hundred number 6 mirrors framed in leather
[fol. 329] One hundred fifty brass cauldrons, large and medium, no small, larger at the top than at the bottom
Fifty ells of scarlet cloth’
One hundred ells of well-chosen scarlet woolen cloth; that which has been sent previously being only a double linen serge
Fifty ells of red camelot
Five complete sets of fine gold buttons
Five of the same in silver
Two hundred ells of St. Jean cloth for lining suits and coats
Extraordinary Presents
Eight hundred ells of blue and red limbourg, half and half
Forty plumes of different colors
Two hundred two-and-a-half-point blankets
Six men’s trade shirts
One hundred fifty trade guns
Four thousand five hundred pounds of powder
Ten gross of woodcutters’ knives
Ten gross of wooden combs
Ten thousand gun flints
Twenty-four hats decorated with imitation silver braid
Twenty-four of the same, plain ‘
[fol. 329v] Three thousand worms
Fifty lengths of scarlet woolen ribbon
Three thousand strike-a-lights
Fifty trade belts
Four hundred number 6 mirrors framed in leather
Six hundred cocks for trade guns 10 •
Six hundred hammers for the same
Six hundred tumblers
Six hundred sear-springs, forged in one piece
Six hundred sears
Eight hundred large screws
Eight hundred cock screws
Twenty-four packets of assorted German files
Thirty-six half-round bastard files
Twenty-four of the same, bastard, flat
Twenty-four of the same, assorted fine
Twenty-four of the same, rat-tailed
Twenty-four of the same, rasps
Forty hundredweight of flat iron for hatchets, pickaxes, and tomahawks
For the Trade with the Choctaw Indians
Five thousand ells of limbourg, blue and red, half and half
[fol. 330] Fifteen hundred blankets of two and a half points
Six hundred three-point blankets
Twelve hundred two-and-a-half-point Bazas blankets
Two thousand six hundred men’s trade shirts, as long in the front as in the back
Four hundred women’s shirts
Five hundred cravats
Two hundred trade guns, thirty caliber
Six thousand pounds of powder
Three hundred lengths of scarlet woolen ribbon
One hundred fifty pounds of pure vermilion
Three hundred fifty pounds of red lead
Three hundred pounds of assorted round beads, particularly sky blue
Thirty gross of woodcutters’ knives
Ten thousand gun flints
Ten gross of trade scissors
Twenty gross of worms
Twenty gross of awls
Twenty gross of strike-a-lights
Six hundred number 6 mirrors {?mounted] in leather
Twenty-five gross of combs
Four hundred ells of blue and red Mazamet 12
{fol. 33ov] Eight hundred ells of sempiterne, blue, red, and plum
Six thousand sewing needles
Eight. thousand pounds of flat iron for hatchets, pickaxes, and tomahawks
Fifty pounds of assorted Rennes thread
One hundred fifty assorted brass cauldrons, large and medium, no small
For the Trade with the Alabama, Attacapa, Kickapoo, Mascouten, and Shawnee Indians
Two thousand ells of red and blue limbourg
Fifteen hundred two-and-a~half-point blankets
Four hundred three-point blankets
Six hundred two-and-a-half-point Bazas blankets
Two thousand five hundred men’s trade shirts
Five hundred women’s shirts
Four hundred trade guns, thirty caliber
Ten thousand pounds of powder
Four hundred lengths of scarlet woolen ribbon
One hundred fifty pounds of vermilion in small bags of one pound
One hundred fifty pounds of red lead
Thirty gross of woodcutters’ knives
[fo1. 33 x 1 Thirty gross of awls
Forty gross of worms
Six gross of wooden combs
Six thousand pounds of flat iron for hatchets, pickaxes, and tomahawks
Two hundred ells of blue and red Mazamet
Ten thousand gun flints
Four thousand sewing needles
Fifty pounds of assorted Rennes thread
Six gross of trade scissors
Fifteen hundred gross of clasp or Flatin knives with antler handles and dogs' heads
Four hundred trade belts
Three hundred cravats
Three hundred sixty number 6 mirrors {?mounted) in leather
Fifty brass cauldrons, large and medium, no s,mall
For the Projected Trade with the Cherokee Indians

Ten thousand ells of limbourg, half red and half blue
Three thousand two-and-a-half-point blankets
Twelve hundred three-point blankets
Ten thousand four hundred Bazas blankets
[fo1. 33 1 v] Five thousand two hundred men’s trade shirts, as long in back as in front
Eight hundred women’s shirts
A thousand cravats
Four hundred trade guns, thirty caliber
Twelve thousand pounds of powder for war
Six hundred lengths of scarlet woolen ribbon
Three hundred pounds of pure vermilion
Three hundred pounds of red lead
Six hundred pounds of assorted round beads
Sixty gross of woodcutters’ knives
Twenty thousand gun flints
Twenty gross of trade guns
Forty gross of worms
Forty gross of awls
Forty gross of strike-a-lights
Two hundred number 6 mirrors {?mounted} in leather
Fifty gross of combs
Eight hundred ells ofbiue and red Mazamet
Eight thousand pounds of fiat iron for hatchets. pickaxes, and tomahawks
Eight thousand pounds ditto for the same
Twelve thousand sewing needles
[fol. 332] One hundred pounds of assorted Rennes thread
Three hundred brass cauldrons, large and medium, no small
Statement of arms, munition, food supplies and merchandise to be sent from France to Louisiana for the needs of the colony on the funds for the year 1759.”
Source: Rowland, Dunbar, A G. Sanders, and Patricia K. Galloway. Mississippi Provincial Archives: French Dominion. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984. Print. DOCUMENT 57, pp.228-232
ANNUAL PRESENTS THAT ARE GIVEN TO THE INDIANS

Friday, 15 August 2014

A List of Supplies for French and Indian Forces 1747.

By John Buxton.

 Following is a list of supplies issued to a French and Indian raiding party in the winter of 1747, which was led by Commander Boucher de Niverville. This list has been, in part, re-translated by the author
.
Supplies for the six militia men:
6 pounds of gunpowder in bags of one eighth of an ell
12 pounds of lead in bags
6 butcher knives
6 flint and steel with tinderbox and tinder
6 awls
36 musket flints 6 tumplines
6 bearskins
6 deerskins weighing 17 pounds
6 pair of ox hide shoes
6 tomahawks
4 ells of mazamet in 6 pairs of mittens and 6 pairs of socks
6 cotton shirts
6 pairs of snowshoes
6 toboggans
6 pairs of ice creepers
6 pounds of tobacco

Supplies for three cadets:
3 pounds of gunpowder
3 bearskins
6 pounds of lead and ball
3 deerskins weighing 8 pounds
3 butcher knives
3 folding knives
3 flint and steel and tinderbox with tinder
3 worms
3 awls
18 musket flints
3 tumplines
3 tomahawks
3 pounds of tobacco
2 ells of mazamet in 3 pairs of mittens and 3 pairs of Ć’ocks
3 ells of molten in 3 pairs of leggings
3 cotton shirts
3 pairs of snowshoes
3 toboggans

Supplies for commander Boucher de Niverville:
2 pounds of gunpowder
1 deerskin weighing three pounds
4 pounds of lead and ball
1 pair of ox hide shoes
2 butcher knives
1 tomahawk
1 folding knife
2 thirds of an ell of mazamet in one pair of mittens and one pair of socks
1 flint and steel and tinderbox with tinder
1 awl
1 ell of molton in one pair of leggings
1 worm
1 cotton shirt
6 musket flints
1 pair snowshoes
1 tumpline
1 pound of chocolate
1 bearskin
1 toboggan
2 pounds of tobacco

Supplies for the 45 Abenaki warriors
45 pounds of gunpowder in a keg
90 pounds of ball in two bags of one eighth of an ell
45 butcher knives
45 folding knives
45 flint and steel and tinderbox with tinder
45 worms
20 awls
200 gun flints
12 tumplines
10 untanned deerskins
20 tomahawks
200 arrow heads
45 deerskins weighing 121 pounds
10 pairs of snowshoes
15 ells of mazamet in 45 pairs of mittens
6 small crib blankets to make shoe liners
12 toboggans
50 pounds of tobacco
12 stone pipes
10 ells of molton in 10 pairs of leggings
22 ells of mazamet and 4 ounces of Rennes thread in 4 capotes
36 ells of Lyon linen in 12 shirts
6 - 2 and a half point blankets
12 crooked knives
4 pounds of vermilion
1 and a half ells of broadcloth in 6 breech cloths
4 uncovered kettles weighing 23 pounds

Supplies for 40 days for the whole party:
15 bushels of cornmeal in 55 bags of one quarter of an ell
400 pounds of salt pork and 400 pounds of hardtack in 14 sacks
1375 pounds of whole flour in 55 bags of one quarter of an ell
4 bushels of peas and 6 bushels of corn in 20 bags of half an ell
4 pots of brandy and 1 pot of wine in 3 casks
1 oilcloth
2 new muskets
6 small files
25 fish hooks
3 pots of cheap rum for Indians upon departure
6 pounds of rice in one bag of one quarter of an ell

Supplies for 24 Abenakis and Iroquois who have joined our party:
24 pounds of gunpowder in one bag of half an ell
48 pounds of lead and ball in one bag of one eighth of an ell
24 butcher knives
24 flint and steel and tinderbox with tinder
24 worms
24 awls
100 musket flints
15 pairs of snowshoes
10 tomahawks
5 large axes
24 deerskins weighing 65 pounds
6 toboggans
100 arrow heads
6 stone pipes
8 ells of mazamet in 24 pairs of mittens
3 crib blankets for shoe liners
24 pounds of tobacco
2 pounds of vermilion
2 muskets
1 kettle weighing nine and a half pounds
500 pounds of whole wheat flour in 24 bags of one quarter of an ell
4 small files
5 bushels of corn meal in 12 bags of one quarter of an ell
2 bushels of peas in 8 bags of one quarter of an ell
50 pounds of grease in 5 kegs
150 pounds of salt pork and 300 pounds of hardtack in 8 bags
48 pounds of beef
72 pounds of bread
1 pot of cheap rum

Reference (7).
The New World Woodsman. His clothing, tools and accoutrements. By Keith H. Burgess.
7)    France, Archives de Colonies series C11A, volume 117, folios 191v to 194, National Archives of Canada, microfilm f-118.

Baynton & Wharton, Traders,1768.

Baynton & Wharton, 1768.
I shall impatiently await the Arrival of our red Strouds &c, without which We shall suffer greatly in our Sales. Should any Accident have happend to them I recommend to you to send at least 100 Pieces of the already described Fabrick, as soon as possible.

I have already sent you a gen^ Order for the Goods which are in
demand here & which will afford a great Advance Mess" Clarkson
& Jennings drew it out, but I fear the Am* may be beyond your
Capacity. If so, I would have you generally confine yourselves to the
Articles therein mark'd with an A particularly those mentiond in the
inclosed List But a small Part of those markd B, will be very
necessary. As to Muscovado & Loaf Sugar, Coffee, Chocolate, Mens,
Womens & Childrens best & common Leather Shoes, Tin Ware —
Pewter d° Silver Truck, Appalachia Handkerchiefs — Beaver Traps,
& Soap, you cannot send too great a Q^^ but an assortment will
occasion quicker Returns & prevent Traders going to New Orleans.
Pray dont forget to send the Jesuits Bark by the first Opportunity
I expect to eat a pound of it myself if it comes in Time. We are
greatly distressed for Want of Medicines & shall be much more so in
two or three Months if Mr Wharton does not bring a small Supply.
I flatter myself that ere this you have forwarded to Fort Pitt A
considerable Part of the Goods I sent an Order for P Silver Heels &
Mr Young & That that [sic] they will be despatchd to this Place
before the Fall of the Waters — We shall be in Want of the following
particular Articles, Viz
Loaf Sugar
Muscovado d"
Hyson Tea
Bohea d°
Chocolate
Pepper
Shoes very large in the
instep but not high
quarterd fine &
coarse Mens Wom-
ens & Childrens
Tin Ware
Pitch & Cordage
Pewter Basons &c
Brass Candle sticks
Writing Paper
Spike Gimblets
Tap Bores
3 Largest Scale Beams
Steel Spurs Short of all Sizes
Salt Petre
Worsted or Cruels
Short Pipes
Blotting Cloaths
fine Irish Linnens
fine Chintz & Callicos
White & red Flan^
Swanskin
Black Barcelona
Cravats & Hkdfs
Bandana d°
small Gilt Trunks
Bed Ticken in Pieces
Table Cloths
Candle Wick &
Candle moulds
black Kip Hides
tannd Sheep Skins
Beaver Traps
Nails & Iron Mongery
for building of Houses
scyths & Sickles
scyth Stones
Knives & Forks
Garden Spades
Axes, of the best sort
A large Q*^ of English Cheese
12 lb Beeswax
Shirt Buttons
fine y^ w^ Cott Checks
blue & red striped
Ginghams & Cott
Hollands
Apalachia Hhdfs
Mens Boys & Womens
worsted Hose & th"*
G milld Hose &
Mitts & Gloves
Felt & Castor Hats
brass Jews Harps
Castile Soap
Playing Cards
6 best Whip Saws
2 Mill Saws
Bar Iron
Red Stroud &c &c principally the Indian Silver Truck as wrote for

These are the principal Articles & will yield an immense
Profit & are what C & J intend to run principally upon Whether
they open a new Store or not, the beneficially closing our Adventure
depends greatly on keeping ours properly assorted — The Expences of Store Rent, Agents, Servants, Diet &c will be nearly the same
Whether We have those Supplies or not, & the having the necessary
Assortments will abundantly contribute to the Sale of the Goods We
have on Hand — Mr Clarksons apprehending that we shall not be
able to keep up those Assortments & knowing the great Profits on the Sale thereof, has induced him I imagine to draw Mr Jennings in to make the inclosed Proposals,^ knowing that we would not accept of them, & that then he should be at Liberty to offer them to others.

Should any adventurous Persons adopt their Plann, I think they
would be still more bold Adventurers than ever B W & M were.
Our Trade 'tis true would be greatly injured but would reap
no Benefit & I cannot believe that Mr Jennings would undertake
such an Affair, provided you comply with the Order of December. 

The 1642 Tailor. The Long Coat.

More images and information at the link below.


Thursday, 14 August 2014

Bed, Shelter and Food.

Author's Sketch and interpretation of the Indian shelter.
At night I hung up my blanket like a hammock, that I might lay out of the reach of the fleas,
troublefome and conftant guefts in an Indian hut ; but I found my contrivance too cool for
a place open on all fides.
About break of day it began to rain, and the Indians made us a covering of bark
got after this manner: They cut the tree round through the bark near the root, and
make the like incifion above 7 feet above it, there horizontal ones are joined by a
perpendicular cut, on each fide of which they after loofen the bark from the wood, and
hewing a pole at the fmall end, gradually tapering like a wedge about 2 feet, they force
it in till they have compleated the feparation all round, and the bark parts whole from the tree,
one of which, a foot diameter, yields a piece 7 feet long and above 3 wide : And having now prepared four forked fticks, they are fet into the ground the longer in front ; on these they lay the crofs-poles
and on them the bark. This makes a good tight fhelter in warm weather. The rain was
quickly over, but as it continued cloudy, we did not care to leave our fhed. Here our Indians
fhot a young deer, that afforded us a good feaft.
John Bartram 1743. Travells from Pennsylvania to Canada.


Australian Native Carry.

Dilly Bag.

 “The women make string out of bark with astonishing facility, and as good as you can get in England, by twisting and rolling it in a curious manner with the palm of the hand on the thigh. With this they make nets ... These nets are slung by a string round their forehead, and hang down their backs, and are used like a work-bag or reticule. They contain all the articles they carry about with them, such as fishing hooks made from oyster or pearl shells.”
- From the diary of an early 18th century settler in the Port Stephens area.