Tuesday, 10 September 2019

Museum of Appalachia to Host “Days of the Pioneer” Antique Exposition - September 13th & 14th

Museum of Appalachia

P.O. Box 1189, Norris, TN 37828

Phone: 865-494-7680 or 494-0514

E-mail: janmarshall@museumofappalachia.org


Museum of Appalachia to Host “Days of the Pioneer” Antique Exposition - September 13th & 14th

The Museum is located 16 miles north of Knoxville, one mile east of I-75 at Exit 122. For additional information call (865) 494-7680 or visit the website at: www.museumofappalachia.org.

Sunday, 8 September 2019

Tools Made from Rasps or Files

Tools Historic Maritime I (1607-1676): The First Colonial Dominion The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 Blacksmiths re-use worn or damaged files and rasps by making them into something else. All the tools listed here are also listed in the sections and categories given. Historic Maritime I (1607-1676): The First Colonial Dominion Sub Category Woodworking: Axes and Hatchets 102409T1 Hatchet 13 1/2" long, 3 1/8" cutting edge It has a forge-welded edge. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T1web1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T1web2.jpg SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools TAB1010 Stone drill 8 1/2" long This stone drill has clearly been re-fashioned from a used blacksmith rasp. It was made in the 17th or 18th century. It is typical of the type of tool early settlers would have used to drill a mooring hole. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tab1007.jpg SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 42602T4 Drawknife 10" wide, 4 1/2" wide blade This hand-forged tool has been carefully refashioned from file steel. The short chubby handles are in the English style and are made of carefully cut and glued leather. This nifty tool is difficult to date; it is probably made in the 18th century. It is displayed in the Maritime I case because it is so typical of the homemade tools of the early colonial period. This tool is, in fact, exactly what a small drawshave in the tool kits of the first New England settlers could have looked like. BDTM Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic SubCategory Agricultural Implements 102409T2 Grafting froe 13" long, 4" wide, 2 3/4" cutting edge DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T2web1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T2web2.jpg 913108T47A Grafting iron 9 1/2" long, 2 3/4" long blade DTM Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory TBF3501 Bench vise 7" high, 2 1/2" wide The hold down is made from a recycled farriers' rasp. DTM 3114T3 Hoof knife 6" long, 1 1/4" wide, 2" edge DTM 61601T5 Tin snips 12 3/4" long These are clearly reforged from a file. The first rolled tin dates to the early 18th century. This reforged smith-made tool is at least 200 years old. DTM SubCategory Cobbler and Saddler Tools 1 Tools Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 62406T3 Curriers' slick fleshing knife 6" long, 2" blade It is forge-welded from a recycled rasp. DTM SubCategory Domestic Utensils 11301T1 Block knife 20 5/7" long with 15 3/4" chopping arm and 5" wide iron blade The iron component of this food and/or tobacco chopper is made of a recycled farriers' file. DTM TBF3000 Cleaver 8 3/8" long with a 2 1/2" blade It was forged out of an old rasp. DTM SubCategory Knives 81101T14 Crooked knife 8 1/2" long, 3" blade Crooked knives are especially common in northern New England where they were used by Native Americans and European settlers for many purposes including basket-making and working birch bark. This knife has been reforged from an old file or rasp, one of early American artisans' most important sources of recycled forged steel. The crosshatched carving on the nicely fashioned applewood (?) handle suggests a Native American user. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/81101t14.jpg SubCategory Logging Tools 913108T49 Spud 8 1/2" long, 2" wide DTM SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools 40501T4 Pry bar 21 3/4" long Refashioned from an old rasp, this rip is a classic example of recycling a dull rasp. With a nicely forged rattail hanger, this tool is probably late 18th century. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools 31602T2 Turn screw 19 1/2" long with 15" long and 5/8" wide blade It has a nicely turned handle with a recycled iron ferrule. A recycled file has been used as the turn screw. An unusual hole has been wrought and drilled in the turn screw center. DTM TJR1301 Turn screw 12 1/2" long, 3 1/2" handle This shows the typical recycling of used rasps. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 81801T11 Drawknife 6" long, 3 1/4" blade This carefully wrought shave is made from the recycled steel of a rasp or file and predates the patternmakers' drawknives that it resembles. Its use is unknown. DTM 2 Tools Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 31702T2 Drawknife 10 1/2" wide, 5 5/8" blade This is an excellent example of an edge tool made out of recycled file steel with English style handles. DTM 32412T2 Drawknife 14" long, 8 1/2" long blade This drawknife is crudely welded together from a file and two separate pieces of steel. Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM 913108T39 Drawshave 20 3/4" long, 7 3/4" blade This shave is made from a recycled rasp or file. DTM 111001T21 Toothed chisel 3 7/16" long, 2" cutting head with 17 teeth This is an excellent example of recycling file steel. Its use is unknown; it is too delicate for stone facing. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Planes 81101T12 Coachmakers' router 13 3/8" wide, 7/16" wide cutter This once common 18th century tool shows indications of being refashioned from an old file or rasp. DTM SubCategory Wrenches 43006T4 Wagon wrench 3/4" and 13/16" wide wrench openings It is a curved wrench, forge-welded and hand-filed from a handmade rasp. It is a nice example of an 18th century wagon wrench. DTM Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution SubCategory Agricultural Implements TCR1001A Grafting froe 8 5/8" long with a 3 1/4" blade This tool is refashioned from an old file or rasp. It was a basic necessity for Davistown residents maintaining orchards in the 19th century. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tcz1006.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tcr1001a.jpg Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory 913108T7 Blacksmiths' tongs 13" long DTM 913108T37 Blacksmiths' tools (5) A) 2 1/2"; B) 9 1/4"; C) 6 1/2"; D) 1 3/4"; E) 7 3/4" This is a set of tools a blacksmith may have made for his own use. They consist of: B) grafting tool, C) spud, D) wedge, and two farriers' hoof cutters A) and E). DTM 021812T4 Clinch cutter This is a farriers' tool rendered out of a recycled rasp or file. DTM 3 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 032103T3 Farriers' chisel 7 3/8" long, 2" long cutter This is an excellent example of recycled steel. Originally a steel rasp, worn out rasps were saved and reworked into other useful edge tools. The peened top cutting edge reflects the transition from forged iron to a hammered steel cutting edge. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032103t3_p1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032103t3_p2.jpg TG1010 Punch 5 1/4" long DTM 021812T6 Wedge 3" long, 1 1/4" wide This is possibly a farriers' or blacksmiths' tool made from a recycled rasp or file. It has a hand-drilled hole of 1/4" diameter that might be used for a handle. DTM SubCategory Cobbler and Saddler Tools TG1007 Tack pry 11 3/8" long It is made from a file. DTM SubCategory Coopers' Tools 81801T13A Coopers' _____? 6" long, 4" angle extension This tool is characterized by the same grooved crease found in all coopers' hammers, though slightly narrower (1/8") than the crease in 81801T13 (1/4"). It is clearly refashioned from recycled file steel and is very unusual. A specific identification is welcomed. DTM 092409T3 Coopers' adz 9 1/3" long, 1" wide with a 12" long handle DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/092409T3web2.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/092409T3web4.jpg SubCategory Domestic Utensils 913108T37A Food chopper 6 1/2" long, 7 3/8" wide blade DTM SubCategory Hammers 032203T3 Snowball hammer 8 3/4" long, 2 3/16" cutter at one end This is a typical example of a late 18th century or early 19th century recycling of a precious forged steel rasp. After becoming dull, this rasp was reshaped into a tool for knocking the snow and ice from a shoed horse. What was the cutting edge used for? Notice that the malleable wrought iron top edge of the tool has been bent over from use, whereas the steel cutting edge shows no evidence of wear. This illustrates the varying amount of carbon in different sections of this tool. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032203t3_p1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032203t3_p2.jpg SubCategory Knives 913108T15 Crooked knife 8 1/2" long, 3/4" long blade This is typical of the forge-welded crooked knife used by the settlers of North America for basketmaking and other uses. DTM 4 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 TG1009 Knife 9 1/2" long, 3 3/8" handle DTM SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools TG1006 Brick chisel 5 3/4" long, 1 1/2" wide It does not have a handle. DTM TG1008 Unidentified tool 16" long, 14" wood handle DTM Watchmakers, Jewelers, and Silversmiths' Tools SubCategory 041505T28 Spinning tool 15" long including a 14" wood handle, 2 1/2" long pewter ferrule The wood handle holds the tanged steel chisel. This cutting tool is clearly made of recycled file steel. It is an uncommon tool from a long lost trade. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools TCC3011 Burin 4" long This commonplace tool is refashioned out of an old file and has a beautifully turned handle. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 22411T3 Drawknife 15 1/2" long, 6 1/2" wide, 10" long blade This drawknife is handmade from a file. DTM 913108T23 Drawknife 12" long, 7 3/4" long blade DTM TG1004 Drawshave 13 5/8" long, 9 1/2" blades It has no handles. DTM 10407T4 Drawshave 10 1/2" wide with a 7" cutting edge The handles are handmade and it is obviously forged from an old file. It is a typical edge tool utilizing the strategy of recycling a high quality (probably English or German) steel file. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/10407t4.jpg Woodworking: Edge Tools - Imported Cast Steel SubCategory Peter Stubs Tools TCC1008 Chisel 4 1/8" long, 3/4" wide "Stubs" It is made from one of Stub's recycled files. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/bioStubs.htm Woodworking: Edge Tools Made in Maine SubCategory 3114T4 Crook knife 9" long, 4" blade LPC 5 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 SubCategory Woodworking: Other Tools TG1003 Center punch 3 1/2" wide DTM TCR1009 Turnscrew 12 1/2" long, 8 3/8" long blade This tool has been refashioned out of an old file. DTM TG1005 Wedge 1 3/4" wide DTM TG1011 Wedge 4 5/8" long, 2 5/16" wide DTM TG1015 Wedge 2 3/8" wide DTM SubCategory Wrenches TG1001 Wrench 13 1/2" long, 9/16" and 1 3/14" open ends DTM TG1002 Wrench 8" long, 3/4" and 5/8" wide open ends DTM Historic Maritime IV (1840-1865): The Early Industrial Revolution Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory 32912T7 Ox shoe 4 1/2" long "L" Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM SubCategory Coopers' Tools 913108T45 Coopers' bung 7 3/4" long, 3 3/4" long blade It is unusual to see a coopers' bung used for a handle attached to a curved blade. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 22411T16 Drawknife 8" long, 4" wide, 5" blade It is hand-forged from an old file. DTM The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools 30311T7 Screwdriver 12" long, 1 1/2" wide It is handmade from a file. DTM 6 Tools The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 30911T6 Tapered reamer 15" long, 8" blade This convex-shaped reamer is handmade from a file. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 72714T1 Drawknife blade 11" long, 5 3/8" cutting edge, 4 1/4" handle tangs This drawknife is fashioned from a reforged file. LPC 31311T12 Gouge 17 " long, 11" long and 1" wide blade, 6" long handle DTM Woodworking: Edge Tools Made in Maine SubCategory 41212T6 Drawknife 16 1/2" long, 9 1/2" long cutting edge "T.C. JACKSON" "STINSON" This tool was made in Bath, Maine circa 1869 or earlier from a recycled steel file or rasp. Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/publications/volume10.html 22411T6 Drawknife 13 1/2" long, 5" long handles, 7 1/2" long blade "J. T. BUDGE" This drawknife is handmade from an old file. Possibly Budge was the maker/owner. The Penobscot County ME Archives History - Businesses listings for Lee in 1883 has J. T. Budge as a blacksmith. The Maine Register of 1889 lists J. T. Budge & Son as blacksmiths in Lee, Maine. DTM 7

Friday, 30 August 2019

Wooden Clothing Buttons.

Wooden Clothing Buttons.

American Artifacts of Personal Adornment, 1680-1820:

Blank/Mold: A “Blank/Mold” is a bone or wood button with either zero holes or one hole. The single hole was a product of manufacturing, when these buttons were cut with a lathe or a carpenter’s brace and bit (Hinks 1988:67). They could be used as the backs to stamped metal buttons, the supporting disc for cloth buttons, or more holes could be drilled in them to make simple, one-piece bone or wooden buttons (ibid).
"Wood buttons were also made in colonial crafts shops and homes. During the 18th century, most wooden buttons were plain and utilitarian. In 1770, Benjamin Randolph advertised his apple, holy, and laurel buttons (Luscomb, ix). Decorated wooden buttons, which were carved, painted, and inlaid, were popular in the 19th century".

Wooden Button Moulds.
Wood backed 
 brass button with catgut shank.

To date I have not come across any images of original 18th century wooden buttons with more than one hole, other than the sample above which is a wood backing for a brass button.

Thursday, 15 August 2019

17C American Women: Women in the 17C Chesapeake (1680s)

17C American Women: Women in the 17C Chesapeake (1680s): In the 17th century, most women came to the Chesapeake as indentured servants. To pay for their passage, women usually worked seven years as...

Wednesday, 7 August 2019

17C American Women: 1676 Ann Cotton's Account of Bacon's Rebellion in ...

17C American Women: 1676 Ann Cotton's Account of Bacon's Rebellion in ...: In 1676, about 1,000 Virginians broke out of control led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon. They fiercely resented Virginia's ...

Young Dark Emu By Bruce Pascoe.

Young Dark Emu, By Bruce Pascoe.
I have just finished reading the book Young Dark Emu by Bruce Pascoe, & to say that I am saddened by what I read would be an understatement. This book tells the true story of the Australian Aboriginal people, their lifestyles before the European invasion. We have been taught that the indigenous peoples of Australia were nomadic & had no permanent settlements, they lived in makeshift humpies & were continuously foraging for food. This is all a lie, these Aboriginal people had permanent towns, and their dwellings were very similar to the Woodland Indian wigwams in the New World. Some villages were within a fenced area, & they had extensive farmlands.
Far from having continuously to forage, these native people farmed & harvested the land & stored their produce for use in hard times. When Australia was invaded, settled by white people, these Aboriginals were driven from their farms, their villages were burnt to the ground. Explorers robbed their food catches with no thought to what hardships this would case these people.
Fish traps & fish farming constructions dating back at least 40,000 years were found, does this sound like a people that had not already settled the land? The whites brought in cattle & sheep that destroyed the farm lands already there, they ate all the crops & trod down the malleable soil until it was hard. Some settlers found & used some of this farm land commenting on how good the soil was. They moved in on this good farm land taking it for themselves.  No wonder then that we read about nomadic tribes, they now had no choice. Their villages & farms destroyed, their stored food supplies robbed. They had no choice but to keep on the move to avoid these invaders, & even so many hundreds of them were systematically murdered, this was genocide. Those that were not killed were enslaved.
I urge you to read Young Dark Emu, it is an eye opener to say the least. To think of what we have lost, what the Aboriginals have lost due to the ignorance & pure maliciousness of the white settlers is soul destroying. As living historians living in Australia, this history is something we should know & share.

Wednesday, 31 July 2019

Monday, 29 July 2019

Australian Aboriginals. The First Farmers. A New History!

Aboriginal farm near Mount Franklin. Picture Credit: Culture Victoria.

Australian Aboriginals. The First Farmers . A New Australian History.
It seems that what we have been taught about the Indigenous Australians is not true, & this puts a whole new perspective on our history & the resultant Living History in Australia.
“Gammage argues, the first Australians worked a complex system of land management, with fire their biggest ally, and drew on the life cycles of plants and the natural flow of water to ensure plentiful wildlife and plant foods throughout the year. They managed, he says, the biggest estate on Earth”.
“Indigenous historian Bruce Pascoe has spent years looking through these incredible accounts and found the first white settlers documented how Aboriginal people built homes, villages, parks, dams and wells, selected seeds for harvesting, ploughed fields, irrigated crops and preserved food in vessels”.
“Aboriginal people were the first culture on earth to bake, evidenced by unearthed grindstones from 30,000 years ago, meaning Aussies beat the ancient Egyptians by more than 15,000 years”.
“It has been purposefully left out of our history,” he said. “The misconception that Aboriginals were hunter-gatherers has been institutionalised and we are all suffering from that institutionalisation today — not just Aboriginal people but the whole country.”
When explorer George Grey first entered the Victoria District of the central west coast of Western Australia in 1839, he noted yam fields of square kilometres in extent. One tract "extended east and west as far as we could see". Further south he recorded that "the whole of this valley is an extensive warran [yam] ground".
A few years later Augustus Gregory, a surveyor who later became a famous explorer and Surveyor General of Queensland, stated that the local Aboriginal population "never dug a yam without planting the crown in the same hole so that no diminution of food supply should result".
Another colonial explorer, Lt. Helpman, commented in 1849 that the Nhanda and Amangu "are a fine race of men but seem to depend entirely upon warran and gum, of which they have great abundance".
Grey also reported four villages in the region, two of which he observed at Hutt River the day after encountering the yam fields. He wrote: "In this distance passed two native villages, or, as the men termed them, towns". These villages comprised dwellings that were "very nicely plastered over the outside with clay, and clods of turf," and which Grey thought "were evidently intended for fixed places of residence".
According to Helpman, these dwellings were "well plastered outside and the timber which formed it was about 6 in. [15 cm] thickness, about 6 ft. [1.8 m] high inside and capable of holding ten persons easily".

Thursday, 11 July 2019

17C American Women: 1668 - Journal of Connecticut Thomas Minor (1608-1...

17C American Women: 1668 - Journal of Connecticut Thomas Minor (1608-1...: A Year in the Life of Thomas Minor, Connecticut Farmer, 1668. Thomas Minor (1608-1690) was born in England & sailed to New England in ...

Trail food bags & containers.

Trail Food Bags & Containers.
 "I have travelled with neere 200. of them at once, neere 100. miles through the woods, every man carrying a little Basket of this [Nokehick] at his back, and sometimes in a hollow Leather Girdle about his middle, sufficient for a man three or foure daies. With this readie provision, and their Bow and Arrowes, are they ready for War, and travell at an houres warning. With a spoonfull of this meale and a spoonfullof water from the Brooke, have I made many a good dinner and supper."

A KEY into the LANGUAGE OF AMERICA By Roger Williams  1643. 

 If their imperious occasions cause them to travell, the best of their victuals for their journey is Nocake, (as they call it) which is nothing but Indian Corne parched in the hot ashes; the ashes being sifted from it, it is afterward beaten to powder, and put into a long leatherne bag, trussed at their backe like a knapsacke; out of which they take thrice three spoonefulls a day, dividing it into three meales. If it be in Winter, and Snow be on the ground, they can eate when they please, stopping Snow after their dusty victuals, which otherwise would feed them little better than a Tiburne halter. In Summer they must stay till they meete with a Spring or Brooke, where they may have water to prevent the imminent danger of choaking. With this strange viaticum they will travell foure or five daies together, with loads fitter for Elephants than men. But though they can fare so hardly abroad, at home their chaps must walke night and day as long as they have it. They keepe no set meales, their store being spent, they champe on the bit, till they meete with fresh supplies, either from their owne endeavours, or their wives industry, who trudge to the Clam-bankes when all other meanes faile. Though they be sometimes scanted, yet are they as free as Emperours, both to their Country-men and English, be he stranger, or neare acquaintance; counting it a great discourtesie, not to eate of their high-conceited delicates, and sup of their un-oat-meal'd broth, made thicke with Fishes, Fowles, and Beasts boyled all together; some remaining raw, the rest converted by over-much seething to a loathed mash, not halfe so good as Irish Boniclapper.
Chap. VI.
Of their dyet, cookery, meale-times, and hospitality at their Kettles.
The Project Gutenberg EBook of New Englands Prospect, by William Wood Wood's New England's Prospects 1634.

Thursday, 4 July 2019

Salt Boilers & Salt Licks.

18th century settlers obtained salt from salt springs, also known as salt licks, by collecting the water from the springs in large kettles & boiling it down over open camp fires. The resulting salt was then packed into sacks and bags and transported back to the settlement on horses.
Salt Boilers & Salt Licks.
Late in the year 1777 the Virginia government sent out several large salt-boiling kettles for the use of the Western settlers. Both residents and visiting militiamen were allotted into companies, which were to relieve each other at salt-making until sufficient was manufactured to last the several stations for
a year. It was Boone's duty to head the first party, thirty strong, which, with the kettles packed on horses, went to Lower Blue Licks early in January.
A month passed, during which a considerable quantity of salt was made; several horse-loads had been sent to Boonesborough, but most of it was still at the camp awaiting shipment. The men were daily expecting relief by
the second company, when visitors of a different character appeared. While half of the men worked at the boiling, the others engaged in the double service of watching for Indians and obtaining food ; of these was Boone. Toward evening of the seventh of February he was returning home from a wide circuit with his packhorse laden with buffalo-meat and some beaver-skins, for he had many traps in the neighborhood. A blinding snow-storm was in progress, which caused him to neglect his usual precautions, when suddenly he was confronted by four burly Shawnese, who sprang from an ambush. Keen of foot, he thought to outrun them, but soon had to surrender, for they shot so accurately that it was evident that they could kill him if they would.

Wednesday, 3 July 2019

18th Century Herbal Use.

PLEASE NOTE: This list is supplied so that you can check these herbs against up to date/modern information. For instance, we grow comfrey in our garden, but up to date information warns against using this herb for food!

Dictionary of 18th Century Herb Usage
BASIL - Chiefly used as flavoring when cooking. Used dried as snuff to relieve headaches and colds. Also used as a strewing herb. Basil is in the mint family, native to Africa, Asia, India, and Iran. It was brought from Europe to America in the early 1600s and by 1774 was grown commercially in Virginia. Its clove-like flavor made many foods more appetizing. Colonists used this herb, also called St. Josephwort, in salads and soups, especially pea soup.
BEE BALM - Used for bee stings. Bee balm is a member of the mint family. It is native to North America, but colonists soon sent seeds to Europe for their friends to plant and enjoy. Tea brewed from its leaves was called Oswego tea and was used as a substitute for China tea after the 1773 Boston Tea Party. BURNET - Burnet or Salad Burnet was carried to New England by the Pilgrims. Its cucumber-flavored leaves added zip to salads, casseroles, and soups. It was put in wine to which it "yeeldeth a certaine grace in drinking.” CARAWAY - Caraway can be found cultivated and wild in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Seeds were used in bread, cookies, and other recipes, and as a flavoring in cordials. The boiled roots of caraway were eaten by Native Americans and recommended for those with a cold or weak stomach. A tasty tea can be made by steeping seeds in boiling water then sweetening with honey.
CHAMOMILE - Infused as a tea for indigestion, gas, and stomach aches. Also used as a strewing herb and insect repellent.
COMFREY - Early leaves were used in salads. Used medicinally as a poultice to heal wounds and reduce swelling.
CORIANDER - Coriander is an annual in the parsley family. It has become naturalized in this country, but is a native of southern Europe and Asia Minor. Colonists employed this spice in breads, desserts, and pickles. The seeds were chewed as a breath freshener. Early distillers used oil of coriander in flavoring some whiskeys.
DILL - Used in salads and for cooking. Dill was used to flavor soups, salads, breads, stew, fish, potatoes, sauces, pickles, and gin.
ELECAMPANE - Used to treat skin diseases in sheep and horses; also as a diuretic and for coughs. CFHS Chadds Ford Historical Society • P.O. Box 27 • 1736 Creek Road • Chadds Ford, PA 19317 Phone: 610-388-7376 • Fax 610-388-7480 • Website: www.ChaddsFordHistory.org 18th C Herb Vocab, ©CFHS, 2012 Page 2 Dictionary of 18th Century Herb Usage (page 2) FENNEL - Fennel leaves were used in salads, stews, and vegetables. The seeds were used in pies and with other baked fruits as well as in breads. FEVERFEW - For "female hysteria," melancholia, and constipation.
GARLIC CHIVES - Culinary uses as a flavoring.
GERMANDER - For gout, rheumatism, fever, and melancholy. HOREHOUND - Used to make a cough syrup. Often used with honey and other herbs. Mixed with plantain for snakebites. Soaked in fresh milk to repel flies. The leaves are used for flavoring beer, cough drops, honey, and for making tea. Leaves should be gathered just before the flowers open. HYSSOP - Strewn on the floor to prevent the spread of infection; also used to treat respiratory illnesses.
LAVENDER - Strewing herb and insect repellent.
LEMON BALM - Infused as a tea for headaches, indigestion, nausea. Distilled as a treatment to clean and heal wounds.
LOVAGE - Similar to celery in taste, used in similar manner. Also used to treat kidney stones.
 MARJORAM - Used in cooking. Also to cure insomnia, nasal congestion, and loss of appetite. Sweet Marjoram was used to flavor stews and soups. PARSLEY - Culinary uses. Seeds used as a diuretic.
PENNYROYAL - Strewing herb. Flea and mosquito repellent.
PEPPERMINT - Breath freshener. Leaves infused as a tea. Peppermint was introduced early to the United States. It also went wild. However, since it prefers wetter land, it is not as prevalent as spearmint. Peppermint leaves were chewed to sweeten the breath. Peppermint oil was used to flavor tea, foods, and medicine.
PLAINTAIN - Used in salads; also as a poultice to heal wounds, and the seeds to prevent miscarriage. The leaves, seeds, and roots could be brewed as a tea. It was brought by European settlers and spread where they settled and earned the name “White Man’s Foot.”
QUEEN ANNE’S LACE - As a diuretic and for kidney stones; also the seeds were used for birth control. 18th C Herb Vocab, ©CFHS, 2012 Page 3 Dictionary of 18th Century Herb Usage (page 3) ROSE HIPS - These are the round red fruits formed from the flowers of the wild rose. It is the seedpod of the plant. Tea can be brewed from the hips, or they may also be dried. It is best to gather rose hips in late fall after the first frost when they are bright red.
ROSEMARY - Oil used as a rub for sore muscles. Promotes liver functions. Culinary uses. RUE - Externally to cure warts, ringworm, and poisonous bites. Internally as a treatment for colic and epilepsy. Decocted for earaches. SAGE - Culinary uses as a flavoring for pork, sausage, and poultry. Medically in combination with other herbs for headaches. Decocted and as a mouthwash for sore throats and infected gums.
SORREL - Used to flavor vinegars and as a pot vegetable. As a poultice for infected wounds. To remove stains from linen.
SPEARMINT - Spearmint was brought to the United States by some of the earliest immigrants. By 1672 it was growing wild. Spearmint leaves were used to make tea, jellies, and sauces. The leaves were sugared and mixed with sugared rose and violet petals to make candy.
ST. JOHN’S WORT - Leaves used treat burns and wounds. Flowers used as a tincture for melancholy.
STINGING NETTLES - Early spring leaves used in salads. A mixture of the seeds, bayberries, gunpowder, and honey was used for rheumatism. Leaves used to line cheese press, and dried as chicken feed.
TANSY - Seed as a vermifuge (to kill internal parasites like roundworms) for children; the root was also used to treat gout.
TARRAGON - Used in salads and to flavor foods.
THYME - Culinary use as a flavoring. Medicinally for toothaches, gout, headaches, and to cure nightmares. Used as an antiseptic. Thyme was brought from Europe by the earliest settlers. Sprigs of thyme were placed on lard and butter to keep them from becoming rancid. It was used to flavor soups, stews, meat, cheese and egg dishes, seafood, and vegetables. YARROW - Leaves can be chewed for toothaches. Sources: “Family Medicine in Colonial Virginia,” Department of School and Group Services, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (Williamsburg Virginia). The Complete Herb Book (Maggie Stuckey) © 2001.

Wednesday, 26 June 2019

Wild Foods. Nettle Pudding.

My sincere thanks to Grizz for sharing this recipe with me.

Ancient Nettle Pudding
Recipe courtesy of Ancient Craft and Celtnet Recipes
According to Celtnet Recipes, “when most food was boiled in a large pot, adding dumplings or ‘puddings’ to stocks (was) a good way of putting starch in the diet. These large dumplings are flavoured with wild herbs and nettles.”[9]
1 bunch of sorrel
1 bunch of watercress
1 bunch of dandelion leaves
2 bunches of young nettle leaves
Some chives
1 cup of barley flour
1 teaspoon of salt
Chop the herbs finely and mix in the barley flour and salt.
Add enough water to bind it together and place in the center of a linen or muslin cloth.
Tie the cloth securely and add to a pot of simmering venison or wild boar (a pork joint will do just as well). Make sure the string is long enough to pull the pudding from the pot.
Cook the pudding until the meat is done (at least two hours).
Leave the pudding to cool slightly, remove the muslin, then cut the pudding into thick slices with a knife.
Serve the pudding with chunks of barley bread.
*The pudding can be served along side the meat with which it was cooked, or it can be served as its own stand-alone dish.
[1] Pappas, S. (2012, September 28). Ancient Burial Shroud Made of Surprising Material, Scientists Find. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Vance, K. (n.d.). History of Stinging Nettle. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
[4] Nettles – discover its healing, medicinal qualities. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2015, from http://www.nettlesforhealth.com/#!nettle-uses/c18ah
[5] Vance, K.
[6] What Else The Romans Did For Us. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2015.
[7] Vance. K.
[8] Macrae, F. (n.d.). Traditional English cooking: Nettle pudding and other ancient recipes. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
[9] Boiled Nettle Pudding a classic reconstructed Ancient Recipe. (n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from http://www.celtnet.org.uk/recipes/ancient/fetch-recipe.php?rid=ancient-boiled-nettle-pudding

Tuesday, 25 June 2019

The Backwoodsman Lifestyle.

By Andrew Knez Jr.

 "We breakfasted at a Captain’s whither we had been directed; for along this road, and others like it in America, one must not be deceived by the bare name of taverns. The people keep taverns if they have anything over and above what they need, if not, the traveler must look about for himself. The Captain was not at all pleased that the neighborhood was beginning to be so thickly settled. ‘It spoils the hunting,’ he said, ‘makes quarrels; and then they come and want to collect taxes; it is time some of us were leaving and going deeper into the country.’ Hence we supposed we should find a thickly settled region, but had to go not less than seven miles before we came to the next neighbor. Like most of the inhabitants of these frontier, he was of those whose chief occupation is hunting, who from a preference for doing nothing, and an old indifference to many conveniences, neglect and dread the quieter and more certain pursuits of agriculture.

"These hunters or ‘backwoodsmen’ live very like the Indians and acquire similar ways of thinking. They shun everything which appears to demand of them law and order, dread anything which breathes constraint. They hate the name of a Justice, and yet they are not transgressors. Their object is merely wild, although natural freedom, and hunting is what pleases them. An insignificant cabin of unhewn logs ; corn and a little wheat, a few cows and pigs, this is all their riches but they need no more. They get game from the woods ; skins bring them in whiskey and clothes, which they do not care for of a costly sort. Their habitual costume is a ‘rifle-shirt’ or shirt of fringed linen ; instead of stockings they wear Indian leggings ; their shoes they make themselves for most part. When they go out to hunt they take with them a blanket, some salt, and a few pounds of meal of which they bake rough cakes in the ashes ; for the rest they live on the game they kill. Thus they pass 10-20 days in the woods ; wander far around ; shoot whatever appears ; take only the skins, the tongues, and some venison back with them on their horses to their cabins, where the meat is smoked and dried ; the rest is left lying in the woods. They look upon the wilderness as their home and the wild as their possession ; and so by this wandering, uncertain way of life, of which they are vastly fond, they become indifferent to all social ties, and do not like many neighbors about them, who by scaring off the game are a nuisance besides. They are often lucky on the hunt and bring back great freight of furs, the process of which are very handsome. Uncompanionable and truculent as this sort of men appear to be, and however they seem half-savage and, by their manner of life, proof against the finer feelings, one is quite safe among them and well treated ; they have their own way of being courteous and agreeable which not everybody would take to be what it is. Their little house-keeping is, for their situation, neat ; and their wives and children are content in their solitudes where for the most part they spend the time in idleness."
Johann David Schöpf  1777-1784.
My sincere thanks to Spence at http://minuteman.boards.net/thread/225/backwoodsmen?page=1&scrollTo=1518 for sharing this information.

Sunday, 23 June 2019

The Lost Trumbull : 18th century cooking

The Lost Trumbull : 18th century cooking: ~ 18th Century Cooking ~ American Bicentennial Decal, 1776-1976 During the American Revolution (1775-1783), Gov. J...

Monday, 17 June 2019

Australian Survival and Preppers..: Thoughts For The Week 18th June 2019 By Ron Owen.

Australian Survival and Preppers..: Thoughts For The Week 18th June 2019 By Ron Owen.: Thoughts For The Week. “Socialism is the doctrine that man has no right to exist for his own sake, that his life and his work do not...

"Together we stand, Divided we fall"!  We have already lost the right to use a flintlock, matchlock or wheellock pistol off range!!!

You need to read this article.

Wednesday, 5 June 2019

Friday, 31 May 2019

The Use of Sealing Wax to Seal the Tops of Corked Wine Bottles in the 17th & 18th Centuries.

The Use of Sealing Wax to Seal the Tops of Corked Wine Bottles in the 17th & 18th Centuries.
An early example, a wine bottle dating to 1727, is reported to have the cork covered with wax and cloth and held down by a string attached under the string rim (No@l Hume 1958b: 774, 776). The use of parchment, paper, and bladders, sometimes impregnated with other substances such as wax or resin, to cover mouths of bottles and jars was common in the 18th century particularly for home bottling (McKearin and Wilson 1978: 249-52). For bottling cider Rees recommended that ••.the corks be driven very tightly into the necks of the bottles, tied down with small strong twine or wire, and well secured with melted rosin, or other material of the same nature•••(Rees 1819: Vol. 10, Cyder).

 It has been postulated that this was because the main supply route was via the Iberian Peninsula which had been conquered  by the Moors in the 8th Century. Paintings from that era depict twists of bung and cloth or leather being used, sometimes with sealing wax to make an air-tight closure.
The making of sealing wax sticks for the use of sealing letters and other documents was only a small part of the sealing wax industry from the end of the eighteenth century into the first decades of the twentieth century. Though of much lesser quality than the sealing wax made to seal documents, this sealing wax, which was used to seal corked wine bottles, was made in large quantities. Shellac, bleached or unbleached was seldom used, replaced with common pine resins. Brick dust was used as both a coloring agent and a filler, and low-grade turpentines were substituted for the top-quality Venice turpentine used for the best sealing waxes. This sealing wax was never made into sticks, it was sold in large chunks which would be melted in a pot for use. The neck of a corked bottle of wine would be dipped into the melted wax, which hardened quickly on the cold glass of the bottle. This rapid hardening could make the sealing wax so brittle that it would break up even when lightly touched. The addition of more turpentine to the mixture would make the sealing wax less brittle, but it could have the undesirable effect of making the sealing wax sticky, even in very cool temperatures. The best bottle sealing wax had some shellac added to the mix. Though this raised the cost slightly, it also resulted in a wax which did not become too brittle in cold weather or too sticky in warm weather. Though it was illegal to sell wine in bottles during the Regency, many vintners and wine sellers who bottled wine for their customers did seal those bottles with this bottle sealing wax.
Sealing wax was also used to seal wine bottles, and protect the cork from the air until the wine was opened. 

Thursday, 23 May 2019

Muzzle-Loading Guns, rifles & pistols. Police Seizure Abuse - The Loose Cannon.

Although I once defied the odds and got nought out of thirty in an open book multiple choice Chemistry test, leading to me studying law and not an agricultural science, Newton’s third law ‘for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction’, has always appealed to me, because at least on one level it applies to human and organisational behaviour and not just objects.

Thus when Police are affected by something they react.
Most readers would be familiar with the Edwards tragedy last year.  Mr Edwards was granted a special Commissioner's Permit for a handgun, against the wishes of a gun club he had previously approached, and then he went oput and commited a murder suicide soon after.  Further compounding the tragedy, his distraught former spouse committed suicide earlier this year. 
Police did not blame themselves for granting the permit, and are now targeting anyone who shoots and who is involved in a Family Law break up.
Case in point, I am acting for a small dealer at present who is in the process of going through a break up with his spouse.  The parties are separated under the one roof.
On my instructions his former partner was somewhat jealous because he was having a discussion and was actively engaged in play with his son. His wife’s mother suggested she call Police, which she proceeded to do.
Police attended, and as no threat was made, and there was no apprehension of violence, no AVO was issued.
Nevertheless, my client’s licence was suspended.  The reason on the suspension was ‘child at risk’- yet there was on these facts no evidence of this.  The only thing that happened that night that would have been scary to a child was the arrival of two Police Officers after the child’s bed time - although I stress that in this particular situation the officers behaved commendably well, and only followed instructions.
Not every child in a break up is a child at risk, and if Police wanted to target children at risk their attention would be better spent visiting shopping centres and rounding up truanting children during the day, and getting tired drivers off the road.
As you may be aware, Police policy of seizure, for a ‘cooling off period’ of 28 days, does not appear to have any statutory basis and any seizure of firearms needs to comply with Firearms Act 1996 or the Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002.
The Police power to suspend a Firearms licence is set out in paragraph 22 of the Firearms Act 1996, and I have set it out below.
22   Suspension of licence
(cf APMC 6, 1989 Act s 35)
(1)  The Commissioner may, if the Commissioner is satisfied there may be grounds for revoking a licence, suspend the licence by serving personally or by post on the licensee a notice:
(a)  stating that the licence is suspended and the reasons for suspending it, and
(b)  requesting that the person provide the Commissioner with reasons why the licence should not be revoked.
(1A) If a licence is being suspended because the Commissioner is satisfied that there may be grounds for revoking the licence under section 11 (5A), the notice suspending the licence is not required:
(a)  to state the reasons for the suspension, or
(b)  to include any request that the licensee provide the Commissioner with reasons why the licence should not be revoked.
(2)  The Commissioner must suspend a licence in accordance with this section if the Commissioner is aware that the licensee has been charged with a domestic violence offence within the meaning of the Crimes (Domestic and Personal Violence) Act 2007 or the Commissioner has reasonable cause to believe that the licensee has committed or has threatened to commit a domestic violence offence within the meaning of that Act.
(3)  A suspended licence does not authorise the possession or use of firearms during the period specified in the notice suspending it.
Whilst not relevant, I shall set out section 11(5) below for your convenience
11(5) A licence must not be issued to a person who:
(a)  is under the age of 18, or
(b)  has, within the period of 10 years before the application for the licence was made, been convicted in New South Wales or elsewhere of an offence prescribed by the regulations, whether or not the offence is an offence under New South Wales law, or
(c)  is subject to an apprehended violence order or interim apprehended violence order or who has, at any time within 10 years before the application for the licence was made, been subject to an apprehended violence order (other than an order that has been revoked), or
(d)  is subject to a good behaviour bond, whether entered into in New South Wales or elsewhere, in relation to an offence prescribed by the regulations, or
(e)  is subject to a firearms prohibition order, or
(f)  is a registrable person or corresponding registrable person under the Child Protection (Offenders Registration) Act 2000.

Turning to the Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 which again relevantly provides:
      20   Relevant offences
The following offences are relevant offences for the purposes of this Division:
       (a)  indictable offences,
       (b)  an offence against section 93FB of the Crimes Act 1900,
       (c)  an offence against the Weapons Prohibition Act 1998, the Firearms Act 1996, or a regulation made under either of those Acts,
       (d)  an offence against a provision of Part 2 of the Explosives Act 2003.

      21   Power to search persons and seize and detain things without warrant
      (cf Crimes Act 1900, ss 357, 357E, Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985, s 37)
       (1)  A police officer may, without a warrant, stop, search and detain a person, and anything in the possession of or under the control of the person, if the police officer suspects on reasonable grounds that any of the following circumstances exists:
       (a)  the person has in his or her possession or under his or her control anything stolen or otherwise unlawfully obtained,
       (b)  the person has in his or her possession or under his or her control anything used or intended to be used in or in connection with the commission of a relevant offence,
       (c)  the person has in his or her possession or under his or her control in a public place a dangerous article that is being or was used in or in connection with the commission of a relevant offence,
       (d)  the person has in his or her possession or under his or her control, in contravention of the Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985, a prohibited plant or a prohibited drug.
       (2)  A police officer may seize and detain:
       (a)  all or part of a thing that the police officer suspects on reasonable grounds is stolen or otherwise unlawfully obtained, and
       (b)  all or part of a thing that the police officer suspects on reasonable grounds may provide evidence of the commission of a relevant offence, and
       (c)  any dangerous article, and
       (d)  any prohibited plant or prohibited drug in the possession or under the control of a person in contravention of the Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985,
       found as a result of a search under this section.

      22   Power to seize and detain dangerous articles on premises
      (cf Crimes Act 1900, s 357)
A police officer who is lawfully on any premises may seize and detain any dangerous article that the police officer finds on the premises, if the police officer suspects on reasonable grounds that the dangerous article is being or was used in or in connection with the commission of a relevant offence.
 Premises include vessels, vehicles, aircraft and other places.
       The difficulty for Police here is that while a firearm is a dangerous article within the meaning of s21(2)(c) there is no relevant offence, nor is there any suspicion on reasonable grounds that the article is or was used in commission of an offence (s22).
After realising that they were on shakey grounds a Sergeant rang my client, alluded to gaol, and referenced the following alleged offences, none of which are supported by available evidence.
  1.     That my client was in possession of 14 unregistered firearms.  This allegation was denied.  My client had completed all PAB28 and 31 paperwork as required by legislation as required and had forwarded these to the Registry by Registered Post.  My client also completed his quarterly return with respect to these entries and forwarded the quarterly return to the Registry by Registered Post.  Apparently, Police wish to hold my client responsible for processing tardiness at their Registry.
     That my client was in possession of a number of prohibited firearms specifically firearms fitted with a folding stock. Allegation admitted. My client is authorised by virtue of his dealer licence to possess prohibited firearms no 11 of Sch 1 of the Firearms Act 1996, item 11 are any firearms fitted with a folding stock.

  1.     That my client was informed he would be asked why one firearm had a defaced serial number.  Upon entering details of all firearms acquired by my client the physical serial number of the firearm was sighted at all times when making these entries.  My client can answer no explanation why one has a defaced serial number he questions if part of a serial number may be partially obscured by a stock.  I requested further particulars.
  2.     The Sergeant informed my client that his decision to suspend my client in the morning of 9 May 2019 was supported by an allegation involving matrimonial property.  On the 8 May 2019 attending Police referred to this as a civil matter, and it was not raised as a complaint until the afternoon of the 9 May 2019. For this reason, this allegation was not raised on the Suspension Notice and had no bearing upon the decision to suspend.
My criticism is with a Police Policy in practice in respect to domestic situations that exceeds the law, and that involves the seizure of firearms without probable cause merely on suspicion of a domestic break up. 
Just because Firearms ownership is a privilege and not a right, does not mean that privilege is subject to unfettered discretion by Police to seize firearms or suspend licences without appropriate due process.
When I first came to Australia, I was amazed how far this country has progressed since it was a penal colony, a mere couple of hundred years ago.  However the longer I practice law, the more convinced I am that my assumption is wrong, for certainly in terms of Police attitude, this state is still a Penal Colony.

Simon Munslow
National Firearms Lawyer
P: (02) 6299 9690
M: 0427 280 962
E: solicitor@bigpond.com
W: firearmslawyer.com.au
Simon Munslow is a lawyer who has a lifelong interest in shooting, having acquired his first firearm at the age of nine, and has had an active interest in firearms law since writing a thesis on the topic over thirty years ago at University.
Simon Munslow practices extensively in Firearms Law matters throughout Australia.
He is a regular contributor to the Australian Sporting Shooter magazine’s website on Firearms law matters, has published articles on firearms reviews and firearms law, and occasionally is asked to comment in the broader media on firearms matters.
This article is written for general information only and does not constitute advice. 
He can assist you with:
Criminal law & Administrative law and in particular that related to Firearms
• All firearms, weapons and game charges
• Avoiding & setting aside Apprehended Violence Orders
• Possession of unregistered firearms
• Unsafe transportation & storage matters
• Applications for prohibited weapons
• License Appeals
• Freedom of Information / Government Public Access matters
• Importation & Customs problems
• Advices & opinions related to Firearms law matters

Read more at http://www.sportingshooter.com.au/latest/police-seizure-abuse-the-loose-cannon#iq2kiJvR6Pw57ZCw.99