A LIVING HISTORY BLOG.

18TH CENTURY LIVING HISTORY IN AUSTRALIA.

Tuesday, 12 November 2019

New Additions To My Equipment.

17th-century Jamestown settlers unwind silk fiber from cocoons
detail of a painting by NPS artist Sydney King

I know, usually I am looking to remove things from my knapsack, but I had a reason to add some things recently. A long time ago a close friend sent me some spools of silk thread, & I had never got round to winding this silk thread onto a thread winder. I didn't want to make the common thread winder, because I didn't think this would fit my persona to have more than one of these period winders, so I made two winders out of some rawhide. I am not likely to use this silk thread for sewing, as I have plenty of linen thread for that purpose, but I had thought to try using it as fishing line & for tying flies.
Sewing thread was sold in skeins, & then wound onto thread winders.
Skein of silk thread.
http://bebetaian.blogspot.com/2012/10/for-sale-nishijin-silk-thread-orange.html;

The two crudely made rawhide silk thread winders that I made.
I am unlikely to use this silk thread for sewing, as I have plenty of linen thread for that purpose, but I thought to try this silk thread for fishing line & for tying flies.

The second item is a small parts pouch. I have no documentation for this, just my own personal need to have some sort of container to put the parts of my fusil into when I am stripping it down in the forest. This pouch is made of leather, & I intend to tie it to the trigger guard of my fusil.
My gun parts pouch.


Saturday, 9 November 2019

Spence's Old Powder Horn.

No date on Spences horn, but obviously it looks pretty old, & Spence's images were so good I just had to ask Spence if I could use his images. Thanks Mate, very much appreciated.





Spence being Spence he just had to put this old horn back into service, so he whittled a new spout plug, bound it in linen twine & beeswaxed it for a good seal.

Thanks again Spence, great images.
Keith.

Friday, 1 November 2019

Gun Politics 101 - an easy to understand guide for Aussie shooters

18th Century Market Fair takes attendees back in time - Delaware State News

18th Century Market Fair takes attendees back in time - Delaware State News: DOVER — Delaware is a state full of history. In the 1700s, The Green in Dover was the site of annual autumn market fairs. But instead of reading about that history through books or lectures, attendees can take a step back in time during the First State Heritage Park 18th Century Market Fair on Saturday. …

Saturday, 26 October 2019

Friday, 11 October 2019

Australian Survival and Preppers..: How The NSW Government Has Turned Objects Into Tim...



Australian Survival and Preppers..: How The NSW Government Has Turned Objects Into Tim...: The dangers of producing legislation on whim, without adequate stakeholder scrutiny are clear to us all, but not apparently to the NSW Go...



I am posting this link here because this could affect any living historian using dummy ordinance even from the 17th & 18th centuries!!!

Tuesday, 8 October 2019

Monday, 7 October 2019

17C American Women: Women in 17C New England

17C American Women: Women in 17C New England: In 17C New England, women usually arrived with family members to band together in cooperative religious communities organized for the collec...

Thursday, 3 October 2019

17C American Women: The Unhealthy 17C Chesapeake - Desperate for Women...

17C American Women: The Unhealthy 17C Chesapeake - Desperate for Women...: Life in the American wilderness was nasty, brutish, and short for the earliest Chesapeake settlers; malaria, dysentery, and typhoid took a c...

Medical Use of Honey in the 17th & 18th centuries. Documentation.


18th Century Medicinal Uses for Honey.
 ‘A poultis for a Swelling by My Aunt Dorothy Pates’, for example, used honey as a binding agent. Another recipe, said to be ‘approved by the best doctars [sic]’ used a clove of garlic saturated in fine English honey and put in the ear for eight days to cure pain and restore hearing.   
 Abigail Smith and others, ‘Collection of medical and cookery receipts’ (c. 1700).  Wellcome Library, London, MS 4631, f. 7r.
 Ibid., f. 23 v

“Cut the white heels from some red rose buds, and lay them to dry in a place where there is a draught of air; when they are dried, put half a pound of them into a stone jar, and pour on them three pints of boiling water; stir them well, and let them stand twelve hours; then press off the liquor (liquid) and when it has settled, add to it five pounds of honey; boil it well, and when it is of the consistence of thick syrup, put it by for use. It is good against mouth sores, and on many other occasions.”
‘Honey of Roses’ and The Family Herbal by Sir John Hill 1759.
The leaves being applied with honey to running sores or ulcers, do cleanse them.
SYRUPS MADE WITH VINEGAR AND HONEY.
The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Complete Herbal, by Nicholas Culpeper
17th Century.




Tuesday, 1 October 2019

Upcoming Fall Events at Museum of Appalachia.


Upcoming Fall Events at Museum of Appalachia
NORRIS, Tenn. – As the leaves begin to change and an Autumn chill sets in, the Museum of Appalachia will host two entertaining family-friendly events.
Fall Heritage Fridays, every Friday in October from 9am-3pm, will offer the opportunity to step back in time and enjoy the sights, sounds, smells, and tastes of pioneer traditions and demonstrations.  Each week will present its own focus area of pioneer life, with exhibitions centered around each theme.
Friday, October 4: “Fall Harvest Day”  Activities to include sorghum making, canning, gardening, farm animal education and petting area, and cooking demonstrations.
Friday, October 11: “Pioneer Performance Arts Day” Activities to include traditional music education and performance, old-fashioned games, dancing, and storytelling.
Friday, October 18: “Pioneer Trades Day” Activities to include blacksmithing, doll making, sawmilling, leatherworking, beekeeping, wheat threshing, shingle splitting, and coopering.
Friday, October 25: “Textiles and Heritage Arts Day” Activities to include sheep herding and shearing, spinning and weaving, pottery making, quilting, and basket weaving.
Haunts and History, October 26-27 from 4-9pm, will feature a trick-or-treat trail, filled with homemade and vintage candies and treats, as well as local storytellers sharing true and inspired stories about our Appalachian ancestors.  Guests can also enjoy hay rides, live music, blacksmithing, pumpkin carving demonstrations, and festive snacks. 
For an additional charge, attendees can pick pumpkins from the patch or choose a pumpkin to paint and take home. 
Advance tickets for both events are on sale now at museumofappalachia.org; events are free to Museum members.  For additional information, admission details, or to enter one of the contests, please call 865-494-7680 or visit the website. 


As a non-profit, Smithsonian affiliated organization, the Museum’s mission is to preserve the artifacts and culture of an earlier time for the benefit of future generations; and to instill in the community – regionally, nationally, and internationally- a greater knowledge of and appreciation for the Appalachian heritage. The Museum is located 16 miles north of Knoxville at I-75, exit, 122, then one mile east.


Saturday, 28 September 2019

Thursday, 26 September 2019

Experience 18th century life at Daniel Boone Homestead.




Experience 18th century life at Daniel Boone Homestead

Event: Heritage Day – An Eighteenth-Century Experience


When: 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday


Where: Daniel Boone Homestead, 400 Daniel Boone Road, Exeter Township


Admission: $7 for adults; $4 for ages 5 to15




By the way: The event is staffed by volunteers and proceeds benefit the educational programs at the Homestead.


Friday, 20 September 2019

Pirate Events Calendar.


Events & Vendors*
For additional upcoming events please visit Pirates & Privateers.

Buccaneer Days from 3 to 6 October 2019 in Catalina, California

Pirate Invasion from 4 to 6 October 2019 in Mystic, Connecticut

Pirates of Emerson Haunted Themed Park from 4 October to 2 November 2019 in Pleasanton, California

Pirates, Ghost Ships, and Seafaring Superstitions on 8 October 2019 at the Mastics Moriches Shirley Community Library in Shirley, New York

Tybee Island Pirate Fest from 10 to 13 October 2019 on Tybee Island, Georgia

Pirates of the High Seas Fest from 11 to 13 October 2019 in Panama Beach City, Florida

Harwich Shanty Festival from 11 to 13 October 2019 in Harwich, United Kingdom

Tennessee Pirate Fest from 12 to 13 October and 19 to 20 October 2019 in Harriman, Tennessee

Haunted Pirate Fest & Mermaid Splash from 26 to 27 October 2019 in Boynton Beach, Florida

More Information Here: http://www.cindyvallar.com/pirates.html

Thursday, 19 September 2019

How to Make Snipe Hinges



My thanks to Gus over at The Minuteman forum for the heads up on this video. Much appreciated Gus.
Keith.

Sunday, 15 September 2019

Sewing Birds.




Sewing Birds & Sewing Clamps.
The Monmouth Museum is home to one of North America's largest collections of 18th and 19th century sewing clamps also known as sewing birds. Sewing clamps were used in the 18th century to attach one end of a piece of cloth firmly to a table to enable a seamstress to hold her sewing taut with one hand while stitching with the other. Before the invention of the sewing machine clothing, sheets and other household items were sewn by hand.
Early clamps can be traced to the late 17th century. The "sewing bird" came into fashion early in the 18th century. Invented in the Georgian period in England, it was the first device that allowed the material to be moved without having to loosen the clamp. Many were made for the travel trade and were used for advertisements. Most were made of polished and turned wood or iron. Victorian clamps were made of brass, iron, steel and painted wood.
In America the first sewing birds were called "grippers." Not used widely until mid-19th century, they became popular as a luxury item, which a young man would present to his intended bride months before the wedding. These were made in many varieties; birds with or without a pin cushion, on a spindle or not, deer, dogs, fish, frogs, snakes, dolphins, cherubs and people. Small thread winders, spool holders, netting hooks and rug braiders were also common.
After the invention of the sewing machine the need for grippers was diminished but they were still manufactured as novelties. The Singer Sewing Machine Company produced a few as late as 1980.
The original inexpensive novelties of yesteryear are expensive antique collectibles today. This extensive collection was gathered by Eugenie Bijur on her travels with her husband, who was an antique collector, and willed to the Monmouth Museum. It is one of the most impressive collections in this country.


Tuesday, 10 September 2019

Museum of Appalachia to Host “Days of the Pioneer” Antique Exposition - September 13th & 14th


Museum of Appalachia

P.O. Box 1189, Norris, TN 37828

Phone: 865-494-7680 or 494-0514

E-mail: janmarshall@museumofappalachia.org

www.museumofappalachia.org


Museum of Appalachia to Host “Days of the Pioneer” Antique Exposition - September 13th & 14th


The Museum is located 16 miles north of Knoxville, one mile east of I-75 at Exit 122. For additional information call (865) 494-7680 or visit the website at: www.museumofappalachia.org.

Sunday, 8 September 2019

Tools Made from Rasps or Files


Tools Historic Maritime I (1607-1676): The First Colonial Dominion The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 Blacksmiths re-use worn or damaged files and rasps by making them into something else. All the tools listed here are also listed in the sections and categories given. Historic Maritime I (1607-1676): The First Colonial Dominion Sub Category Woodworking: Axes and Hatchets 102409T1 Hatchet 13 1/2" long, 3 1/8" cutting edge It has a forge-welded edge. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T1web1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T1web2.jpg SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools TAB1010 Stone drill 8 1/2" long This stone drill has clearly been re-fashioned from a used blacksmith rasp. It was made in the 17th or 18th century. It is typical of the type of tool early settlers would have used to drill a mooring hole. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tab1007.jpg SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 42602T4 Drawknife 10" wide, 4 1/2" wide blade This hand-forged tool has been carefully refashioned from file steel. The short chubby handles are in the English style and are made of carefully cut and glued leather. This nifty tool is difficult to date; it is probably made in the 18th century. It is displayed in the Maritime I case because it is so typical of the homemade tools of the early colonial period. This tool is, in fact, exactly what a small drawshave in the tool kits of the first New England settlers could have looked like. BDTM Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic SubCategory Agricultural Implements 102409T2 Grafting froe 13" long, 4" wide, 2 3/4" cutting edge DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T2web1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/102409T2web2.jpg 913108T47A Grafting iron 9 1/2" long, 2 3/4" long blade DTM Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory TBF3501 Bench vise 7" high, 2 1/2" wide The hold down is made from a recycled farriers' rasp. DTM 3114T3 Hoof knife 6" long, 1 1/4" wide, 2" edge DTM 61601T5 Tin snips 12 3/4" long These are clearly reforged from a file. The first rolled tin dates to the early 18th century. This reforged smith-made tool is at least 200 years old. DTM SubCategory Cobbler and Saddler Tools 1 Tools Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 62406T3 Curriers' slick fleshing knife 6" long, 2" blade It is forge-welded from a recycled rasp. DTM SubCategory Domestic Utensils 11301T1 Block knife 20 5/7" long with 15 3/4" chopping arm and 5" wide iron blade The iron component of this food and/or tobacco chopper is made of a recycled farriers' file. DTM TBF3000 Cleaver 8 3/8" long with a 2 1/2" blade It was forged out of an old rasp. DTM SubCategory Knives 81101T14 Crooked knife 8 1/2" long, 3" blade Crooked knives are especially common in northern New England where they were used by Native Americans and European settlers for many purposes including basket-making and working birch bark. This knife has been reforged from an old file or rasp, one of early American artisans' most important sources of recycled forged steel. The crosshatched carving on the nicely fashioned applewood (?) handle suggests a Native American user. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/81101t14.jpg SubCategory Logging Tools 913108T49 Spud 8 1/2" long, 2" wide DTM SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools 40501T4 Pry bar 21 3/4" long Refashioned from an old rasp, this rip is a classic example of recycling a dull rasp. With a nicely forged rattail hanger, this tool is probably late 18th century. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools 31602T2 Turn screw 19 1/2" long with 15" long and 5/8" wide blade It has a nicely turned handle with a recycled iron ferrule. A recycled file has been used as the turn screw. An unusual hole has been wrought and drilled in the turn screw center. DTM TJR1301 Turn screw 12 1/2" long, 3 1/2" handle This shows the typical recycling of used rasps. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 81801T11 Drawknife 6" long, 3 1/4" blade This carefully wrought shave is made from the recycled steel of a rasp or file and predates the patternmakers' drawknives that it resembles. Its use is unknown. DTM 2 Tools Historic Maritime II (1720-1800): The Second Colonial Dominion & the Early Republic The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 31702T2 Drawknife 10 1/2" wide, 5 5/8" blade This is an excellent example of an edge tool made out of recycled file steel with English style handles. DTM 32412T2 Drawknife 14" long, 8 1/2" long blade This drawknife is crudely welded together from a file and two separate pieces of steel. Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM 913108T39 Drawshave 20 3/4" long, 7 3/4" blade This shave is made from a recycled rasp or file. DTM 111001T21 Toothed chisel 3 7/16" long, 2" cutting head with 17 teeth This is an excellent example of recycling file steel. Its use is unknown; it is too delicate for stone facing. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Planes 81101T12 Coachmakers' router 13 3/8" wide, 7/16" wide cutter This once common 18th century tool shows indications of being refashioned from an old file or rasp. DTM SubCategory Wrenches 43006T4 Wagon wrench 3/4" and 13/16" wide wrench openings It is a curved wrench, forge-welded and hand-filed from a handmade rasp. It is a nice example of an 18th century wagon wrench. DTM Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution SubCategory Agricultural Implements TCR1001A Grafting froe 8 5/8" long with a 3 1/4" blade This tool is refashioned from an old file or rasp. It was a basic necessity for Davistown residents maintaining orchards in the 19th century. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tcz1006.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/tcr1001a.jpg Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory 913108T7 Blacksmiths' tongs 13" long DTM 913108T37 Blacksmiths' tools (5) A) 2 1/2"; B) 9 1/4"; C) 6 1/2"; D) 1 3/4"; E) 7 3/4" This is a set of tools a blacksmith may have made for his own use. They consist of: B) grafting tool, C) spud, D) wedge, and two farriers' hoof cutters A) and E). DTM 021812T4 Clinch cutter This is a farriers' tool rendered out of a recycled rasp or file. DTM 3 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 032103T3 Farriers' chisel 7 3/8" long, 2" long cutter This is an excellent example of recycled steel. Originally a steel rasp, worn out rasps were saved and reworked into other useful edge tools. The peened top cutting edge reflects the transition from forged iron to a hammered steel cutting edge. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032103t3_p1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032103t3_p2.jpg TG1010 Punch 5 1/4" long DTM 021812T6 Wedge 3" long, 1 1/4" wide This is possibly a farriers' or blacksmiths' tool made from a recycled rasp or file. It has a hand-drilled hole of 1/4" diameter that might be used for a handle. DTM SubCategory Cobbler and Saddler Tools TG1007 Tack pry 11 3/8" long It is made from a file. DTM SubCategory Coopers' Tools 81801T13A Coopers' _____? 6" long, 4" angle extension This tool is characterized by the same grooved crease found in all coopers' hammers, though slightly narrower (1/8") than the crease in 81801T13 (1/4"). It is clearly refashioned from recycled file steel and is very unusual. A specific identification is welcomed. DTM 092409T3 Coopers' adz 9 1/3" long, 1" wide with a 12" long handle DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/092409T3web2.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/092409T3web4.jpg SubCategory Domestic Utensils 913108T37A Food chopper 6 1/2" long, 7 3/8" wide blade DTM SubCategory Hammers 032203T3 Snowball hammer 8 3/4" long, 2 3/16" cutter at one end This is a typical example of a late 18th century or early 19th century recycling of a precious forged steel rasp. After becoming dull, this rasp was reshaped into a tool for knocking the snow and ice from a shoed horse. What was the cutting edge used for? Notice that the malleable wrought iron top edge of the tool has been bent over from use, whereas the steel cutting edge shows no evidence of wear. This illustrates the varying amount of carbon in different sections of this tool. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032203t3_p1.jpg http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/032203t3_p2.jpg SubCategory Knives 913108T15 Crooked knife 8 1/2" long, 3/4" long blade This is typical of the forge-welded crooked knife used by the settlers of North America for basketmaking and other uses. DTM 4 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 TG1009 Knife 9 1/2" long, 3 3/8" handle DTM SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools TG1006 Brick chisel 5 3/4" long, 1 1/2" wide It does not have a handle. DTM TG1008 Unidentified tool 16" long, 14" wood handle DTM Watchmakers, Jewelers, and Silversmiths' Tools SubCategory 041505T28 Spinning tool 15" long including a 14" wood handle, 2 1/2" long pewter ferrule The wood handle holds the tanged steel chisel. This cutting tool is clearly made of recycled file steel. It is an uncommon tool from a long lost trade. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Boring Tools TCC3011 Burin 4" long This commonplace tool is refashioned out of an old file and has a beautifully turned handle. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 22411T3 Drawknife 15 1/2" long, 6 1/2" wide, 10" long blade This drawknife is handmade from a file. DTM 913108T23 Drawknife 12" long, 7 3/4" long blade DTM TG1004 Drawshave 13 5/8" long, 9 1/2" blades It has no handles. DTM 10407T4 Drawshave 10 1/2" wide with a 7" cutting edge The handles are handmade and it is obviously forged from an old file. It is a typical edge tool utilizing the strategy of recycling a high quality (probably English or German) steel file. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/pics/10407t4.jpg Woodworking: Edge Tools - Imported Cast Steel SubCategory Peter Stubs Tools TCC1008 Chisel 4 1/8" long, 3/4" wide "Stubs" It is made from one of Stub's recycled files. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/bioStubs.htm Woodworking: Edge Tools Made in Maine SubCategory 3114T4 Crook knife 9" long, 4" blade LPC 5 Tools Historic Maritime III (1800-1840): Boomtown Years & the Dawn of the Industrial Revolution The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 SubCategory Woodworking: Other Tools TG1003 Center punch 3 1/2" wide DTM TCR1009 Turnscrew 12 1/2" long, 8 3/8" long blade This tool has been refashioned out of an old file. DTM TG1005 Wedge 1 3/4" wide DTM TG1011 Wedge 4 5/8" long, 2 5/16" wide DTM TG1015 Wedge 2 3/8" wide DTM SubCategory Wrenches TG1001 Wrench 13 1/2" long, 9/16" and 1 3/14" open ends DTM TG1002 Wrench 8" long, 3/4" and 5/8" wide open ends DTM Historic Maritime IV (1840-1865): The Early Industrial Revolution Blacksmith, Farrier, and Metalworking Tools SubCategory 32912T7 Ox shoe 4 1/2" long "L" Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM SubCategory Coopers' Tools 913108T45 Coopers' bung 7 3/4" long, 3 3/4" long blade It is unusual to see a coopers' bung used for a handle attached to a curved blade. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 22411T16 Drawknife 8" long, 4" wide, 5" blade It is hand-forged from an old file. DTM The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools SubCategory Miscellaneous Tools 30311T7 Screwdriver 12" long, 1 1/2" wide It is handmade from a file. DTM 6 Tools The Industrial Revolution (1865f.): Other Factory Made Tools The Davistown Museum - Tools Made from Rasps or Files 31-Jul-14 30911T6 Tapered reamer 15" long, 8" blade This convex-shaped reamer is handmade from a file. DTM SubCategory Woodworking: Edge Tools 72714T1 Drawknife blade 11" long, 5 3/8" cutting edge, 4 1/4" handle tangs This drawknife is fashioned from a reforged file. LPC 31311T12 Gouge 17 " long, 11" long and 1" wide blade, 6" long handle DTM Woodworking: Edge Tools Made in Maine SubCategory 41212T6 Drawknife 16 1/2" long, 9 1/2" long cutting edge "T.C. JACKSON" "STINSON" This tool was made in Bath, Maine circa 1869 or earlier from a recycled steel file or rasp. Courtesy of Liberty Tool Co. DTM http://www.davistownmuseum.org/publications/volume10.html 22411T6 Drawknife 13 1/2" long, 5" long handles, 7 1/2" long blade "J. T. BUDGE" This drawknife is handmade from an old file. Possibly Budge was the maker/owner. The Penobscot County ME Archives History - Businesses listings for Lee in 1883 has J. T. Budge as a blacksmith. The Maine Register of 1889 lists J. T. Budge & Son as blacksmiths in Lee, Maine. DTM 7


Friday, 30 August 2019

Wooden Clothing Buttons.

Wooden Clothing Buttons.

American Artifacts of Personal Adornment, 1680-1820:


Blank/Mold: A “Blank/Mold” is a bone or wood button with either zero holes or one hole. The single hole was a product of manufacturing, when these buttons were cut with a lathe or a carpenter’s brace and bit (Hinks 1988:67). They could be used as the backs to stamped metal buttons, the supporting disc for cloth buttons, or more holes could be drilled in them to make simple, one-piece bone or wooden buttons (ibid).
https://www.daacs.org/wp-content/uploads/buttons.pdf
"Wood buttons were also made in colonial crafts shops and homes. During the 18th century, most wooden buttons were plain and utilitarian. In 1770, Benjamin Randolph advertised his apple, holy, and laurel buttons (Luscomb, ix). Decorated wooden buttons, which were carved, painted, and inlaid, were popular in the 19th century".
https://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1042&context=utk_chanhonoproj


Wooden Button Moulds.
Wood backed 
 brass button with catgut shank.

To date I have not come across any images of original 18th century wooden buttons with more than one hole, other than the sample above which is a wood backing for a brass button.
Keith.

Thursday, 15 August 2019

17C American Women: Women in the 17C Chesapeake (1680s)

17C American Women: Women in the 17C Chesapeake (1680s): In the 17th century, most women came to the Chesapeake as indentured servants. To pay for their passage, women usually worked seven years as...

Wednesday, 7 August 2019

17C American Women: 1676 Ann Cotton's Account of Bacon's Rebellion in ...

17C American Women: 1676 Ann Cotton's Account of Bacon's Rebellion in ...: In 1676, about 1,000 Virginians broke out of control led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon. They fiercely resented Virginia's ...

Young Dark Emu By Bruce Pascoe.

Young Dark Emu, By Bruce Pascoe.
I have just finished reading the book Young Dark Emu by Bruce Pascoe, & to say that I am saddened by what I read would be an understatement. This book tells the true story of the Australian Aboriginal people, their lifestyles before the European invasion. We have been taught that the indigenous peoples of Australia were nomadic & had no permanent settlements, they lived in makeshift humpies & were continuously foraging for food. This is all a lie, these Aboriginal people had permanent towns, and their dwellings were very similar to the Woodland Indian wigwams in the New World. Some villages were within a fenced area, & they had extensive farmlands.
Far from having continuously to forage, these native people farmed & harvested the land & stored their produce for use in hard times. When Australia was invaded, settled by white people, these Aboriginals were driven from their farms, their villages were burnt to the ground. Explorers robbed their food catches with no thought to what hardships this would case these people.
Fish traps & fish farming constructions dating back at least 40,000 years were found, does this sound like a people that had not already settled the land? The whites brought in cattle & sheep that destroyed the farm lands already there, they ate all the crops & trod down the malleable soil until it was hard. Some settlers found & used some of this farm land commenting on how good the soil was. They moved in on this good farm land taking it for themselves.  No wonder then that we read about nomadic tribes, they now had no choice. Their villages & farms destroyed, their stored food supplies robbed. They had no choice but to keep on the move to avoid these invaders, & even so many hundreds of them were systematically murdered, this was genocide. Those that were not killed were enslaved.
I urge you to read Young Dark Emu, it is an eye opener to say the least. To think of what we have lost, what the Aboriginals have lost due to the ignorance & pure maliciousness of the white settlers is soul destroying. As living historians living in Australia, this history is something we should know & share.
Keith.


Wednesday, 31 July 2019

Monday, 29 July 2019

Australian Aboriginals. The First Farmers. A New History!

Aboriginal farm near Mount Franklin. Picture Credit: Culture Victoria.

Australian Aboriginals. The First Farmers . A New Australian History.
It seems that what we have been taught about the Indigenous Australians is not true, & this puts a whole new perspective on our history & the resultant Living History in Australia.
“Gammage argues, the first Australians worked a complex system of land management, with fire their biggest ally, and drew on the life cycles of plants and the natural flow of water to ensure plentiful wildlife and plant foods throughout the year. They managed, he says, the biggest estate on Earth”.
“Indigenous historian Bruce Pascoe has spent years looking through these incredible accounts and found the first white settlers documented how Aboriginal people built homes, villages, parks, dams and wells, selected seeds for harvesting, ploughed fields, irrigated crops and preserved food in vessels”.
“Aboriginal people were the first culture on earth to bake, evidenced by unearthed grindstones from 30,000 years ago, meaning Aussies beat the ancient Egyptians by more than 15,000 years”.
“It has been purposefully left out of our history,” he said. “The misconception that Aboriginals were hunter-gatherers has been institutionalised and we are all suffering from that institutionalisation today — not just Aboriginal people but the whole country.”
When explorer George Grey first entered the Victoria District of the central west coast of Western Australia in 1839, he noted yam fields of square kilometres in extent. One tract "extended east and west as far as we could see". Further south he recorded that "the whole of this valley is an extensive warran [yam] ground".
A few years later Augustus Gregory, a surveyor who later became a famous explorer and Surveyor General of Queensland, stated that the local Aboriginal population "never dug a yam without planting the crown in the same hole so that no diminution of food supply should result".
Another colonial explorer, Lt. Helpman, commented in 1849 that the Nhanda and Amangu "are a fine race of men but seem to depend entirely upon warran and gum, of which they have great abundance".
Grey also reported four villages in the region, two of which he observed at Hutt River the day after encountering the yam fields. He wrote: "In this distance passed two native villages, or, as the men termed them, towns". These villages comprised dwellings that were "very nicely plastered over the outside with clay, and clods of turf," and which Grey thought "were evidently intended for fixed places of residence".
According to Helpman, these dwellings were "well plastered outside and the timber which formed it was about 6 in. [15 cm] thickness, about 6 ft. [1.8 m] high inside and capable of holding ten persons easily".